"Explosion technology"— scientific and technical journal

Journal was founded in 1922 by a group of engineers. In Russia and the CIS "Explosion technology" is the only one peer-reviewed specialized periodical in the field of blasting.

Issue 122/79 (2019)

Theory and practice of blasting work

Brief view
 Article title
Title and imprint

Section 1. Researches of the rocks destruction by explosion
UDC 622.235
B.R. Rakishev, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Z.B. Rakisheva, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Head of the Department
A.M. Auezova, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
A.A. Orynbay, PhD student of the department «Mining», Senior Lecturer
(Kazakh National Research Technical University named after KI Satpayev, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan)

Influence of blocknessand thegrid of wells on the granulometric composition of exploded rocks

Keywords: the content of natural separation in the array of rocks, blockiness of the rock mass, drilling and blasting parameters, well grid, automated determination of the granulometric composition of blasted rock

The article analyzes the influence of blockiness of the rock mass and the grid of wells on the composition of the blasted rock mass.It is based on the developed analytical method for determining the granulometric composition of blasted rocks during blasting of ledges by well charges.The results of the explosion in the rock massifs of various blockiness and with different well grids are modeled by the proposed method of automated prediction of the composition of blasted rocks.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Rakishev B.R. Avtomatizirovannoe proektirovanie i proizvodstvo massovyh vzryvov na kar'erah: – Almaty: Ғylym, 2016. -340 p.
  2. Rakishev B.R., Rakisheva Z.B. Theoretical estimation of granulometric structure of exploded mining rocks at the quarries.// Proceedings of the Siksteenth international Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection. (MPES 2007) and the Tenth International Symposium on 1 Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production (SWEMP 2007). Bangkok, Toyland, 2007. – Vol.1. – P.908-912.
  3. Rakishev B.R., Rakisheva Z.B., Aujezova A.M., Kuttybaev A.E. Analiticheskoe opredelenie granulometricheskogo sostava vzorvannoj gornoj massy pri skvazhinnyh zarjadah droblenija.// Vzryvnoe delo -№113/70. Moskva, 2015. P.6-19.
  4. NET Framework: //www.microsoft.com/net.
  5. Lars Powers, Mike Snell. Microsoft Visual Studio 2015 Unleashed, 3rd Edition – Indianapolis, Imprint Sams, 2015. – р.1320.
  6. Microsoft Visual Studio://www.visualstudio.com/
  7. Rakishev B.R., Aujezova A.M., Kazangapov A.E. Strukturno-ierarhicheskie modeli massivov gornyh porod. GIAB, 2018. № 4. P. 128-138
  8. Zharikov I.F. Regulirovanie stepeni droblenija pri vzryvanii vysokih ustupov. // Vzryvnoe delo– №111/68. Moskva, 2014. P.93-100.
  9. Vinogradov Ju.I. Metodika ocenki jeffektivnosti droblenija massiva gornyh porod razlichnymi tipami VV. // Vzryvnoe delo– №104/61. Moskva, 2010. P.91-97.
  10. Dugarcyrenov A.V., Kim S.I.., Dolzhikov K.I., Petrov A.N., Markov V.S. Vzryvnoe razrushenie gornyh porod raznoprochnyh massivov // GIAB. 2012. №11. P.372-376.
  11. Vohmin S.A., Kurchin G.S., Kirsanov A.K. Process razrushenija porody pri vzryve zarjada vzryvchatogo veshhestva // Vestnik ZabGU. 2015. №11 (126). S.10-22.
UDC 622.235
G.P. Paramonov, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences
V.N. Kovalevskiy, Assistant Professor, Candidate of Engineering Sciences
A.V. Mysin, postgraduate student
(St. Petersburg Mining University, St Petersburg, Russia)

Numerical simulation of the destroyed unit rock explosion taking into account the laboratory experiments

Keywords: numerical modeling, ferruginous quartzites, equation of state, rock destruction, explosion, zone of destruction, Johnson-Holmquist-2 strength model (JH-2), charge design

The article presents the results of numerical simulation of the explosion based on the finite element method. The stages of creating a computational model, which consist in the construction of geometry, creating a finite element computational grid, the initial and boundary conditions, are described. As the model strength of the rock was used the equation of state of Johnson-Holmqvist. To verify the results of numerical calculation, laboratory tests were carried out on the physical model of the block of ferrous quartzites in compliance with the similarity criteria. The dependences of the radial acceleration of the ore body on time for verification of the numerical model are shown. Based on the verified model, the zone of destruction and fields of the equivalent stress when blasting for different designs of the borehole charge. It is concluded that the effectiveness of the explosive impact on the array of different designs to solve the problem of study of the high bench bottom.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Aldas, G.G. Explosive charge mass and peak particle velocity (PPV)-frequency relation in mining blast. //Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, No.7(3), p.223.
  2. Olsson, M., Bergqvist, I. What causes cracks in rock blasting? // Fragblast, No.6(2), pp. 221-233.
  3. Borovikov, V. A. Fizicheskoe modelirovanie dejstviya vzryva i processa razrusheniya gornyh porod vzryvom (Physical modeling of the explosion and the process of destruction of rocks by the explosion) // izd. LGI, 1984. – p.106.
  4. Ansys inc. Autodyn. Explicit software for non-linear dynamics: theory manual. Ansys inc., 2005. — 235 p.
  5. Fedoseev A.V. Obosnovanie razmerov setki skvazhinnyh zaryadov pri vzryvnom razrushenii sloistyh massivov zhelezistyh kvarcitov. (Substantiation of the dimensions of the grid of downhole charges in the explosive destruction of layered arrays of ferruginous quartzites.) //[Elektronnyj resurs] //www.spmi.ru/sites/default/files/lib/sci/aspirantdoctorant/avtoreferaty/2014/dissertaciya_fedoseev.pdf#3
  6. Baum F.A., Stanyukovich K.P., SHekhter B.I. Fizika vzryva (Physics of explosion) // M.: Fizmatgiz, 1959. pp.799.
  7. Kamyanskij V.N. Povyshenie ehffektivnosti skvazhinnoj otbojki na kar'erah pri raz-novremennom vzryvanii skvazhinnyh zaryadov. (Improving the efficiency of borehole blasting in open pits with one-time blasting of well charges.)//[Elektronnyj resurs] //ипконран.рф/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/ Диссертация Камянского В.Н.pdf
  8. Lee E.L., Hornig, H.C., Kury, J.W. Adiabatic expansion of high explosive detonation products. // Livermore, California, No.41 p. 97.
  9. Johnson, G.R.; Holmquist, T.J. A computational constitutive model for brittle materials subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high pressures. In Shock Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena in Materials; //CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1992; pp. 1075–1081.
  10. Johnson, G.R.; Holmquist, T.J. An improved computational constitutive model for brittle materials. //In AIP Conference of High-Pressure Science and Technology; American Institute of Physics: Colorado Springs, CO, USA; Volume 309, pp. 981–984.
  11. Johnson, G.R.; Holmquist, T.J. Response of boron carbide subjected to large strains, high strain rates, and high pressures. // J. Appl. Phys. No 85, pp.8060–8073.
  12. Johnson, G.R.; Holmquist, T.J. Response of aluminum nitride (including a phase change) to large strains, high strain rates, and high pressures. J. Appl. Phys., No.94, pp.1639–1646.
  13. Nefedov, M. A. Napravlennoe razrushenie gornyh porod vzryvom (Directional destruction of rocks by an explosion) / M. A. Nefedov. – Spb, Izd. SPb universiteta. 235p.
UDC 622.261
I.F. Zharikov, Seniorresearcher, doctor of technical sciences
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS, Moscow, Russia)

Quality of blasted rock mass is a result of the type of dynamic loading

Keywords: design, explosion, shock waves, voltage, crushing Wednesday, fighting waves, destruction, granulometric composition

Discusses the results of a study of the impact of various types of dynamic loads, defined by the design features of the explosive charge on the movement of solid Wednesday and as a result, the distribution of particle size composition of blasted rock mass. Are the results of the calculation gasdynamic phenomena arising in the interaction of individual parts of the charge and their impact on the growth and branching cracks, causing the resulting quality of preparation of blasted rock mass for further work

Bibliographic list:
  1. Melnikov N.V., Marchenko L.N. Energy blast and charge/design/m., Nedra, 1964.
  2. Zharikov I.F., Marchenko L.N. Study of the mechanism of action of elongated charges when the firm Wednesday. "Explosive" case No. 71/28, 1976, pp. 81-90.
  3. Zharikov I.F. Effectiveness drilling process control and blasting training mountain massif to the excavation. "Explosive action", no. 108/65, 2012, s. 82-92.
  4. Muskhelishvili N.I. Singular integral equations//Year, m., 1967, p. 195.
  5. Zharikov I.F Problems of preparation of the. blasted rock mass on deep horizons. "Explosive action", no. 120/77, 2018, s. 109-121.
  6. Cherepanov G.P.On the impact impulse to development of initial cracks//PMTF, no. 1, 1983, with 49-55.
  7. Zharikov I.F. Simulation action of downhole charges on flat two-dimensional models. "Scientific communications» IGD them. A.A. Skochinsky, no. 317, 2001, pp. 43-51.
  8. Zharikov I.F., Kirillov M.A.Optimization of parameters of explosions on reset method modeling "GornyVestnik, No. 1, 1994, pp. 25-30.
UDC 550.344; 550.348; 622.235
V.M. Gubaydullin, General Director
I.V.Brigadin, scientific consultant, candidate. tech. Sciences
S.Iv. Doroshenko, scientific adviser, kand. tech.sciences
S.A. Krasnov, scientific consultant, candidate. tech. sciences
(JSC «Promstrojjsnab», Russia, Saint-Petersburg)
А.А. Artemyev, Director General Arkhipov M.S., Chief engineer
(JSC "Khimtekh", Russia, Saint-Petersburg)
D.I.Mikheev, head. laboratory
(Rkhtu im. D. I. Mendeleev, Russia, Moscow)
A.V. Trofimov, head of the centre for physico-mechanical studies of the candidate. tech. sciences
(Gipronickel Institute, LLC, Russia, St. Petersburg)

Destruction of rocks blast hole charges on the basis of helper

Keywords: rock, blast hole charge, helper, the Ammonite zone of crushing, the fracture zone, granulometric composition, detonation

In a special experiment, a comparison of the characteristics of destruction of solid rock explosions blast hole charges of industrial explosives «Helper GP-T» (developed by OOO «Scientific-Production Enterprise «Chemical Technology»»), and Ammonite. The correctness of the relative impact was achieved by the implementation of the Vernier approach, i.e. a high degree of identity of conditions of blasting. The distribution of the granularity of the destroyed rock is shown. It is noted the increased effect of the explosions of charges gelora compared to charges of Ammonite in the area of cracking.The results of the study of the process of detonation of gel PVV electromagnetic method. In the plots of the records of detonation differences of explosions of charges helper and model VV reducing the maximum peak pressure increased the duration of the region of high pressure and the lack of a clearly distinguishable point of Chapman-Jouguet.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Trubetskoy K.N., Viktorov S.D., Kutuzov B.N., Repin N. I am. Problems of development of explosive business on the earth's surface. Explosive case. Vol. No. 101/58. M.: ZAO «MVK on explosive case at AGN».2009. C. 3-24.
  2. Viktorov S.D., Kazakov N.N... Shlyapin A. V., Kretov S.I. The use of emulsion explosives for crushing ore two-stage blocks in the quarry of JSC «Mikhailovsky GOK». Explosive case. Vol. No. 106/63. M.: ZAO «MVK on explosive case at AGN».2011. P. 53-64.
  3. Kutuzov B.N. Methods of blasting, part 2, Blasting in mining and industry; – M.: publishing house mining book, MSU, 2008, p. 57-92
  4. Rodionov V.N., Adushkin V.V., Kostyuchenko V.N. et al. Mechanical effect of underground explosion, M., Nedra, 1971.
  5. Adushkin V.V., Spivak A.A. Destructive effect of explosion in pre-stressed environment. Notes of The Institute. St. Petersburg, 2001, vol. 148 (1), pp. 21-32.
  6. Mangush S. K., Kryukov, G.M., Fisun, A.P. Blasting operations in underground mining. Textbook universities. M.: Izd. AGN, 2000
  7. Scientific and technical report «Comparative tests on the destruction of rocks by gel, emulsion and regular (typical) explosives». «Promstroy explosion» Khimtekh, OOO, SPb,2015,49 pages.
  8. Trofimov A.V. The Method of treatment of the granulometric composition.
  9. Doroshenko S I. Improving the technology of destruction of rock, PhD thesis. – IPKON RAS, Moscow, 2014.
  10. Zaitsev V.M., Pokhil, P.F., Shvedov K.K. Electromagnetic method of measurement of explosion products, USSR DAN, vol. 132, №6, p. 1339, 1960
UDC 622.268.4:622.235
A.V. Dugartsyrenov, Ph.D. in Engineering, Associate Professor at the Department of Rock Mining
(Moscow State Mining University, Moscow, Russia)
R.A.Rakhmanov, research fellow, Ph.D. in Engineering
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS, Moscow, Russia)

Evaluation of the effect of air gap on the efficiency of blasting borehole charges

Keywords: well, air gap, diameter of charge and well, charge, crushing, pressure

The paper gives an overview of the research on the action of the charge with an air gap. An analytical analysis of the pressure reduction of explosive detonation products during the explosion of charges with an air gap is carried out. On the basis of the analytical study, it is shown that as a result of the use of air gaps, the effect of the explosion on the walls of wells is significantly reduced and the zone of fine crushing is reduced. It is shown that with the appearance of air gaps, the time of departure of the tamping from the well decreases. Variants of optimization of parameters of blasting operations at the expense of application of an air interval are offered.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Leshchinsky, A.V., Shevkun, The dispersion of borehole charges. – Khabarovsk, publishing house of the Pacific. state UN-TA, 2009. – 154s.
  2. Dugartsyrenov A.V., Rakhmanov R.A. Evaluation of the effectiveness drable-tion of rocks charges with air gaps // Blast-ing. 2018. No. 121/78.
  3. Borehole charges with air gaps / M. S. Akayev, B. G. Tregubov, A. A. Krutilin, A. G. Trofimovich. Novosibirsk, 1974. – 91c.
  4. Zharikov I.F. Energy-Saving technology of blasting in mines // Explosive case. 1998. No. 91/48. P. 191-195.
  5. Shevkun E.B., Leschinsky A.V. Dispersion of borehole charges with polystyrene foam.
  6. Baum, F.A. Evaluation of the efficiency of the blast dawn-ing air gaps vzryv. 1964. No. 54/11. P. 48-52.
  7. Krivoshein I.R., Mine, M.I., Korkunov G.S. The Choice of the rational design of charge to Vsevolodo-vil'venskiy career // the Explosive case. 1963. No. 51/8. P. 159-169.
  8. Melnikov N.In. Marchenko L.N. The energy of the explosion and design of the series. M., 1964. 138 p.
  9. Kim M.F. Experience of application of charges with air gaps on the careers of Kazakhstan // the Explosive case. 1967. No. 62/19. P. 215-225.
  10. Study of the effectiveness of charge air Prome-godami / M. G .Novozhilov, M. F. Drukovanyy, L. M. Gaiman, V. M. Komir, I. A. Semenyuk // Explosive case. 1964. No. 54/11. P. 113-124.
  11. Tikhovidov A.F. Air gaps and protozoa VV – important reserves for increasing the efficiency of blasting // Explosive case. 1964. No. 54/11. P. 241-244.
  12. Brotanek I., Water. Contour blasting in mining and construction. M., Nedra, 1983. 144 p.
  13. Dugartsyrenov A.V. The Account of forces of friction when moving the tamping in the well // the Explosive case. 2016. No. 116/73. P. 63-70.
  14. Dugartsyrenov A.V., Kim I.T., Rakhmanov R.A., Zarovnyaev B.N., Shubin G.V., Nikolaev S.P. The effects of increased deliveries of gas detona tion-tion on the departure time of tamping with the explosion of borehole charges. // Explosive case. 2016. No. 116/73. P. 48-62.
  15. Dugartsyrenov, A.V., Rakhmanov, A.V., Zarovnyaev, Shubin G.V. Control of pressure pulse of detonation products in the explosion of well charges in quarries / / Explosive case. 2018. No. 119/76.
  16. Dugartsyrenov A.V., Rakhmanov R.A. Research of process of departure of the combined tamping with the explosion of borehole charges // Explosive case. 2018. No. 120/77.

Section 2. State and improvement of explosives, devices and blasting agents
UDC 622.235
A.S. Derzhavets, General Manager
I.О. Shkalyabin, Technical Lead
(JSC «Vzryvispitaniya»)
F.I.Galushko,Head of Drilling and Blasting Operations
(JSC «MCC «EuroChem»)

On the scale results of comparative field tests modeling of the explosive charges on the basis of porous ammonium nitrate

Keywords: porous ammonium nitrate, explosive blend, Velocity of detonation, detonation characteristics, explosives

The article presents the results of comparative field tests, which have been aimed at determining the detonation characteristics of the «ANFO» compositions as explosive systems, and their optimization using LDAN produced by «NAC AZOT» according to TU 2143.073-0576 1643-2013. A program of field tests of explosive charges based on the specified LDAN with diesel fuel is described, which provides for the determination of velocity of detonation using modern methods at a specialized test complex of GosNIIMash JSC.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods. Guide to testing and criteria. UN, ISBN 978-92-1-439039-8.
  2. Dobrynin A.A. Explosives. Chemistry. The compositions. Security – M.: Publishing House of the Academy of Zhukovsky, 2017. – 528 p
  3. Cook M.A. The science of industrial explosives. M.: Nedra, 1980, – 453 p.
  4. Equist B.V. Theory of explosive detonation: studies. Allowance - M.: Izd. House MISiS, – 24 p.
  5. Morhard, Robert C. Explosives and Rock Blasting, Published by Blasters Tool & Supply Co, ISBN 10: 0961628405 / ISBN 13: 97809616284061987
UDC 622.235
A.V. Starshinov, Ph. D., technical Director
(The Company «Montag»)

Modern considerations about the structure of granules of ammonia salivers and mixed explosives on its basis

Keywords: explosive mixtures, ammonium nitrate, granule structure, explosion model, chemical processes, explosion products, nitrogen oxides

A classification of AS varieties (AN) produced by nitrogen plants of the Russian Federation, including P AS versions (ANPP) of world-class quality is given. The features of the structure of particles-granules of new types of AN and mixed explosives based on them are highlighted. To explain the behavior of the mixtures, explosion models have been used, refined using the laws of chemistry and the formation of end products, often containing oxides of nitrogen.


Section 3. Technology of blasting in the mining of solid minerals
UDC 622.235
J. Jamiyan, Ph. D., General Director
(Company «Montag», Mongolia)
A.V. Starshinov, Ph. D., Technical Director
(Company «Montag», Russia)
A. Temuulin, Executive Director
B. Bilegt, Manager for international cooperation of Blast»
(Blast Company, Mongolia)
V.А. Belin, Professor of Mining Institute
(NUST MISIS)

New decisions on the provision of explosive works in Mongoles with explosive materials

Keywords: mixed explosives, emulsions, charging machines, well tamping, drilling and blasting operations

Brief information on experience in the production and use of explosive mixtures in Mongolia on the example of companies «Montag» and «Blast» with the release of a number of original technological and organizational solutions. The ways and means of increasing the efficiency of production of BVR for mining enterprises on the basis of integrated solutions to improve the processes of production and use of granular and emulsion explosives.

UDC 622.235
G.P. Paramonov, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences
V.N. Kovalevskiy, Assistant Professor, Candidate of Engineering Sciences
A.V. Mysin, postgraduate student
(St. Petersburg Mining University, St Petersburg, Russia)

Impact on the rock massif of borehole charges with different designs

Keywords: rock mass crushing, breaking up by explosives, charge design, borehole charges, conversion additives, bench bottom elaboration, particle size distribution

The paper presents the physical and mechanical characteristics of rock formations from the Ilmenioki deposit. The paper contains the results of pilot scale tests conducted within the quarry of Rubikon LLC in the area of the Ilmenioki deposit. The article also describes the methodology applied to measure detonation velocity using DataTrapII VOD and MicroTrap devices. Detonation pressure was calculated based on the measured values of detonation velocity. Dependences of detonation pressure on explosives’ detonation velocity are shown in this paper. The paper presents a comparison of explosive fragmentation results for various designs of borehole charges made using photoplanimetric analysis. It was established that a quality elaboration of the bench bottom is achieved by blasting the blocks, and the degree of fragmentation is maintained within the specified limits when using a combined design that uses different types of explosives separated by a graded inert gap. The greatest effect on the development of the bottom was achieved when placing parts of the combined charge in the ratio of 0.3:0.7 of the bench height.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Mysin A.V., Mironov Yu.A., Paramonov G.P. Sovershenstvovanie burovzryvnyh rabot na zhelezorudnom kar'ere Otkrytogo Akcionernogo Obshchestva «Mihajlovskij gorno-obogatitel'nyj kombinat» (Improvement of drilling and blasting operations at the iron ore quarry Of open joint Stock Company «Mikhailovsky mining and processing plant») // ZHurnal «Markshejderskij Vestnik» 2016 N6, pp.19-24.
  2. Vozgrin R.A. Povyshenie kachestva drobleniya gornoj massy pri primenenii skvazhinnyh zaryadov ehmul'sionnyh vzryvchatyh veshchestv umen'shennogo diametra. (Improving the quality of crushing rock mass in the application of borehole charges emulsion explosives of reduced diameter.) [Elektronnyj resurs]// //old.spmi.ru/system/files/lib/sci/aspirant-doctorant/avtoreferaty/2015/2015-1/dissertaciya_vozgrin.pdf
  3. Babkin R.S. Snizhenie vybrosov oksidov azota pri vedenii vzryvnyh rabot na mestorozhdeniyah, razrabatyvaemyh otkrytym sposobom. (Reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides in the conduct of blasting operations in the fields developed by the open method.) [Elektronnyj resurs]// //www.spmi.ru/sites/default/files/imci_images/sciens/dissertacii/2018/ДиссертацияБабкинР.С.08.10.18.pdf.
  4. Sil'vestrov V.V. O zavisimosti skorosti detonacii ot plotnosti dlya ryada vzryvchatyh veshchestv.( On the dependence of the detonation velocity on the density for a number of explosives) // Fizika goreniya i vzryva. №4. V.42, 2006. – pp. 116-124
  5. Men'shikov P.V., Sinicin V.A., Matorin A.S. i dr. Opredelenie detonacionnyh harakteristik ehmul'sionnyh VV, izgotovlyaemyh v usloviyah gornyh predpriyatij. (Determination of detonation characteristics of emulsion explosives manufactured in mining enterprises.)// Gornyy Informatsionno-Analiticheskiy Byulleten = Mining Information- Analytical Bulletin 2010. – pp. 298-301.
  6. Kutuzov B.N., Gorinov S.A., Sobina E.P. i dr. Emul'sionnye VV, Granehmity i ANFO: struktura, iniciirovanie, fiziko-tekhnicheskie osnovy sozdaniya. (Emulsion explosives, and ANFO Granulity: structure, initiation, physical and technical bases of creation.)// M.: «Gornaya kniga», 2011. – 64 p.
  7. Kovalevskiy V.N, Paramonov G.P., Mysin A.V. Impact of multicharge detonation on the explosion pulse value // IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. No. 87. Pp. 43–46.
  8. Baum F.A., Stanyukovich K.P., Shekhter B.I. Fizika vzryva (Physics of explosion) // M.: Fizmatgiz, 1959. pp.799.
  9. Landau L.D. Opredelenie skorosti istecheniya produktov detonacii kondensirovannyh vzryvchatyh veshchestv(Determination of the rate of expiration of the detonation products of condensed explosives) // 1969.– pp. 499-503.
  10. Rukovodstvo po ispol'zovaniyu izmeritelya skorosti detonacii. DataTrap II DATA/VOD Recorder. Redakciya 3.0. – MREL Group of Companies Limited, Kingston, Can-ada, 2013. – 102 p.
UDC 622.235
А.A. Rozhkov, Researcher
(IM UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia)

Calculation method of parameters of decking blasthole ring charges

Keywords: granular quartz, blasting, decked charge, blasthole ring, air gap, specific consumption of explosives

In the mining of valuable non-metallic raw materials, there is an acute problem of over-grinding of the material during its blasting, when small fractions simply do not meet the requirements for the quality of the final product. In underground mining, the main method of blasting is blasthole ring charges of solid construction. The main disadvantages of the method are the uneven distribution of the explosive on the plane of the layer and the consumption of a significant part of the energy of the charges of the solid construction for the blasting effect, necessarily associated with the ore grinding. As a solution to these problems, the author proposes a blasting technology, the essence of which is that the uniformity of the distribution of the concentration of the energy of explosives in the layer is provided by the decking of the charges by air gaps and a certain order of their placement in the plane of the blasthole ring. For the practical implementation of the technology, a method for the formation of decked charges in rising deep blasthole has been developed, which does not require a significant increase in labor costs and additional special funds. A special calculation method has been developed to determine the decking parameters that ensure the sustained specific consumption of explosives throughout the plane of the layer.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Götze J., Pan Y., Müller A., Kotova E.L., Cerin D. Trace Element Compositions and Defect Structures of High-Purity Quartz from the Southern Ural Region, Russia // Minerals. 2017, 7, P. 189.
  2. Ogorodnikov V.N., Polenov Ju.A., Savichev V.N. Osobo chistyj kvarc Ufalejskogo kvarcenosnogo rajona (Juzhnyj Ural) (Especially pure quartz of the Ufalei quartz-bearing region (South Ural)) // Izvestija UGGU = News of teh Ural State Mining University. 2018. No 1. pp. 23-32.
  3. Mineralurgiya zhilnogo kvartsa (Mineral processing of veined quartz). Pod red. V. G. Kuzmina, B. N. Kravtsa. M.: Nedra, 1990. 294 p.
  4. Antonov V.A., Sokolov I.V., Baranovskij K.V. Issledovanie jekonomicheskoj pribyli pri osvoenii kvarcevogo mestorozhdenija (The study of economic profits in the development of quartz deposits) // Izvestija Tul'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Nauki o Zemle = Tidings of the Tula State University. 2018. No 2. pp. 379-388.
  5. Mitjushkin Ju.A., Lysak Ju.A., Plotnikov A.Ju., Ruzhickij A.V., Shevkun E.B., Leshhinskij A.V. Optimizacija parametrov vzryvnyh rabot uvelicheniem intervalov zamedlenija (Optimization of blasting parameters by increasing deceleration intervals) // Gornyy Informatsionno-Analiticheskiy Byulleten = Mining Information-Analytical Bulletin. 2015. No 4. pp. 341-348.
  6. Viktorov S.D., Kazakov N.N., Shlyapin A.V., Lapikov I.N. Camouflet Blasting of a Finite-Length Borehole Charge. Proceedings of the 8th Internftional conference on physical problems of rock destruction. – Beijing, China: Metallurgical Industry Press, 2014. P. 28-31.
  7. Jhanwar J.C. Theory and Practice of Air-Deck Blasting in Mines and Surface Excavations: A Review // Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. 2011. no. 29. P. 651-663.
  8. Shevkun E.B., Leshhinskij A.V., Galim'janov A.A. Upravlenie burovzryvnym drobleniem skal'nyh porod zarjadami s vozdushnymi polostjami (Control of drilling and blasting crushing of rocks by charges with air cavities) // Gornyj zhurnal = Mining journal. 2016. No 2. pp. 66-69.
  9. Melnikov N.V., Marchenko L.N., Zharikov I.F., Seinov N.P. Blasting methods to improve rock fragmentation // Acta Astronautica. 1978. Vol. 5. Р. 1113-1127.
  10. Sokolov I.V., Smirnov A.A., Rozhkov A.A. Otboyka kvartsa rassredotochennyimi skva-zhinnyimi zaryadami pri podzemnoy dobyiche (Quartz breakage by dispersed borehole charges in underground mining) // Gornyy Informatsionno-Analiticheskiy Byulleten = Mining Information-Analytical Bulletin. 2017. No 10. pp. 178-185. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2017-10-0-178-185.
  11. Sokolov I.V., Smirnov A.A., Antipin Yu.G., Rozhkov A.A. Fizicheskoe modelirovanie vzryivnoy otboyki vyisokotsennogo kvartsa (Physical modeling of explosive breakage of high-grade quartz) // Vestnik MGTU = The Vestnik of Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University. 2017. No 1. pp. 4-9. doi: 10.18503/1995-2732-2017-15-1-4-9
  12. Latyshev O.G., Petrushin A.G., Azanov M.A. Promyshlennye vzryvchatye materialy: uchebnoe posobie (Industrial explosive materials: a training manual). Pod red. O.G. Latysheva. Ekaterinburg: Izd-vo UGGU, 2009. 221 p.
  13. Belin V.A., Kryukov G.M. Itogi razvitiya teorii razrusheniya gornyih porod vzryivom (Results of the development of the theory of rock destruction by explosion) // Vzryivnoe delo=Explosion technology. 2011. No 105/62. pp. 3-17.
  14. Sokolov I.V., Baranovskij K.V. Vybor jeffektivnoj tehnologii podzemnoj razra-botki mestorozhdenija kvarca (Selection of an effective technology for underground development of a quartz deposit // Bulletin of Magnitogorsk State Technical University) // Vestnik MGTU = The Vestnik of Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University. 2016. No 2. pp. 10-17.
  15. Sokolov I.V., Smirnov A.A., Antipin Ju.G., Baranovskij K.V., Nikitin I.V., Rozhkov A.A. Rezul'taty jeksperimental'nyh issledovanij podzemnoj dobychi vysokocennogo kvarca v uslovijah Kyshtymskogo rudnika (Results of experimental studies of underground mining of high-value quartz in the conditions of the Kyshtym mine) // Fiziko-tekhnicheskie problemy razrabotki poleznykh iskopaemykh = Journal of Mining Science. 2018. No 1. pp. 97-106.
  16. Smirnov A.A., Rozhkov A.A. Issledovanija dejstvija vzryva veera skvazhinnyh zarjadov (Investigations of explosion action of blast hole ring charges) // Vzryivnoe delo = Explosion technology. 2018. No 119/76. pp. 118-128.
  17. Mosinets V.N. Drobyaschee i seysmicheskoe deystvie vzryiva v gornyih porodah (Crushing and seismic action of an explosion in rocks). M.: Nedra, 1976. 271 p.
  18. Zharikov I.F., Marchenko L.N. Issledovanija mehanizma dejstvija udlinennyh zarja-dov pri vzryve v tverdoj srede (Studies of the mechanism of action of elongated charges in an explosion in a solid medium) // Vzryivnoe delo = Explosion technology. 1972. No 71/28. pp. 81-91.
  19. Sokolov I.V., Smirnov A.A., Rozhkov A.A. Povyshenie jeffektivnosti dobychi kvarca primeneniem ploskoj sistemy rassredotochennyh zarjadov (Improving the efficiency of quartz mining using a flat system of dispersed charges) // Izv. vuzov. Gornyiy zhurnal = News of the Higher Institutions. Mining Journal. 2018. No 1. pp. 56-65.
  20. Gorinov S.A. Effektivnost primeneniya ploskih sistem zaryadov dlya otboyki silno-treschinovatyih rud v podzemnyih usloviyah (Efficiency of application of flat systems of charges for breaking of highly fractured ores in underground conditions) // Izv. vuzov. Gornyiy zhurnal = News of the Higher Institutions. Mining Journal. 1985. No 7. pp. 68-73.

Section 4. Ecology and safety during blasting operations
UDC 622.235
I.Yu. Maslov, PhD, chief engineer
(Global mining Exploit-Russia LLC, Moscow, Russia)

Studying of structure the kolchedannykh of ores for an assessment of safety of use of explosives on the basis of ammonium nitrate

Keywords: ammonium-nitrate explosives, topochemical reaction, specific surface area and porosity of pyrite ores

The results of studies of the internal structure of pyrite ores obtained by micrometry on scanning electron microscope Carl Zeiss EVO and porometry on the Porosimeter Pascal 440 are presented. The analysis of the obtained data shows that the defect in the microstructure of pyrite ores is such that the specific surface of the sample is 30-3000 times greater than the specific surface of a defect-free sample of the same size. Since the reaction of pyrite interaction with ammonium nitrate contained in the explosive material occurs on the pyrite surface, the factor of different development of the specific surface of ores should be taken into account when assessing the safety of blasting in pyrite massifs using ASVV.

Bibliographic list:
  1. «The Guide to the prevention of spontaneous fire and explosions of explosives on the basis of ammonium nitrate by production of explosive works in chalcopyrite ores». The Ministry of metallurgy of the USSR, 1991, – 7 pages.
UDC 622.235
E.N. Chernykh, candidate of geological and mineralogical Sciences, senior researcher
(Institute of the earth's Crust, SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia)
G.V. Shubin, candidate of technical Sciences, associate Professor
B.N. Zarovnyaev, doctor of technical Sciences, Professor, Director Institute
(NEFU them. M. K. Ammosova, Mining Institute, Yakutsk, Russia)

Monitoring the seismic effect of mass explosions on geomechanical state reportlng plot array gallery of the mine «Lucky»

Keywords: monitoring, rock mass, massive explosions, seismic effects, tunnel sensors-deformometer, thermospot, the increment of deformation

In order to develop recommendations on the system of control over the seismic effect of explosions on underground structures, experimental full-scale studies were conducted to assess the state of the local area near the portal of shtolen using methods based on seismological observations. The analysis of the results of the measurement, the conclusions about the feasibility of continuing work on the study of this direction.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Hongsen Luo, Yong He, Guohui Li1 and Ji Li. Slope Stability Analysis of Open Pit Mine Based on AHP and Entropy Weight Method, International Journal of Security and Its Applications, 2016, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp.283-294.
  2. Chao Peng, Zhaocai Zhang, Dong Ji, Zhenxiong Yan. Stability Analysis of Open-Pit Slope under Explosive Loads, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 2014, Vol. 19, Bund. M, pp. 2821 – 2827.
  3. Markéta Lednick, Zdeněk Kaláb. Vibration response of the waste rock dump in open pit mine caused by blasting operation, Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 2015, Volume 20, number 2, pp. 71-79.
  4. Mironov P.S. Vzryvy i seysmobezopasnost sooruzheniy.– M.: Nedra, 1973.– 168 s.
  5. Kozyrev A.A., Semenova I.E., Rybin V.V., Avetisyan I.M. Stress redistribution in deep open pit mine Zhelezny at Kovdor iron ore deposit//Journal of Mining Science. 2015. Vol. 51. Iss.4. P. 659 – 665.
  6. Proyekt AK «Alrosa» (ZAO) «Vskrytiye opytno-promyshlennogo uchastka (OPPU) rudnika «Udachnyy» (vskrytiyegor. –305 m i 380 m s otmetki –170 m)». M., 2003. –45 s.
  7. Bulychev N.S. Mekhanika podzemnykh sooruzheniy v primerakh i zadachakh: Uchebnoye posobiye dlya vuzov. M.: Nedra, 1989. – 270 s.
  8. Markov G.A. Tektonicheskiye napryasheniya I gornoye davleniye v rudnikakh Khibinskogo massiva. L.: Nauka, 1977. – 232 s.
  9. Microtremor Measurements Used to Map Thickness of Soft Sediments by MalteIbs-von Seht and Jiirgen Wohlenberg Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 89, No. 1, February 1999. pp. 250-259.
  10. Adushkin V.V., Kocharyan G.G., Rodionov V.N. O vozdeystvii seysmicheskikh kolebaniy maloy amplitudy na inzhenernye sooruzheniya. Doklady AN, T. 369, № 6, 1999. S. 816-817.
  11. Belfer I.K., Nepomnyashchikh I.A. Seysmicheskaya tomografiya. (Regionalnaya, razvedochnaya I promyslovaya geofizika: Obzor VIEMS). M., 1988. – 70 s.
  12. Efimova E.A., Ruderman E.N. Vozmozhnosti primeneniya tsifrovoy tomografii dlya interpretatsii geofizicheskikh dannykh. (Regionalnaya, razvedochnaya i promyslovaya geofizika: Obzor VIEMS. M., 1982. – 55 s.
  13. Chernykh E.N., Basov A.D., Chechelnitskiy V.V. i dr. Izucheniye massiva mnogoletnemerzlykh gornykh porod seysmometricheskim metodom dlya otsenki sostoyaniya podzemnykh gornykh vyrabotok. Otchet. Irkutsk, 2006. – 72 s.
  14. Chernykh E.N., Basov A.D., Shubin G.V., [i dr.] Izucheniye deformatsiy na konture podzemnoy vyrabotki uchastka OPPU rudnika «Udachnyy» s pomoshchyu strunnykh datchikov// Yuzhnaya Yakutiya – novyy etap industrialnogo razvitiya: materialy mezhdunarod. nauch. –prakt. konf. (24-26 okt. 2007 g.). – Neryungri, 2007. – T. 1. – S. 344 -346.
UDC 622.273: 65.011.12(088,8)
V.I. Lyashenko, PhD. tech. sciences, senior researcher
P.A. Kisly, chief specialist.
(Ukrnipipromtehnologii, Ukraine)
V.I. Golik, doctor of engineering. Sciences, Professor of the Department «Development of mineral deposits».
(FGBOU VPO «North–Caucasian state technological University», Ukraine)
V.I. Romashenko, Dr. tech. Sciences, prof., Department of geophysical information systems
(Russian state University of oil and gas (national research University) I.M. Gubkin, Moscow, Russia)
R.A. Rakhmanov, research fellow, Ph.D. in Engineering
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS, Moscow, Russia)

Increase of seismic safety of underground mining of rock deposits on the basis of application of new means of initiation of explosions of explosive charges

Keywords: rocky fields, mining operations, seismic safety, means of initiation, safety

The main scientific and practical results of studies to improve the seismic safety of underground mining of rock deposits on the basis of the use of new means of initiation of EXPLOSIVE charges are presented. A new research method is described and the analysis of permissible seismic safety value of the EXPLOSIVE charge per one deceleration using a new generation seismograph, manufactured by Instantel, Canada of the BlastMate series III type is performed. The empirical dependence for determining the permissible value of the mass of the EXPLOSIVE charge per one deceleration (y) is proposed, taking into account the permissible speed of soil displacement at the base of buildings and structures 0.4 cm/s and the distance between explosions and protected objects (x), as well as the safety of dilapidated buildings, of the form y=a∙x2 (here a–coefficient depending on the seismic properties of the rock mass and the conditions of explosion). The analysis of the previously performed research and control observations, instrumental measurements of the seismic action of the explosion devices and equipment, mathematical analysis and statistical processing of the results, the establishment of dependencies, the calculations and justifications for standard and new methods. It is shown that the increase in seismic safety and efficiency of blasting operations at mines is achieved by the use of new means of initiation of EXPLOSIVE charges, in particular, considered and proposed: ED-type electric detonators-1-3-T and ED-Z-IP; non-electric systems of initiation of EXPLOSIVE charges such as SINV-sh, PRIMA-ERA, «Edilin», «Impulse», electronic initiating device based on the waveguide and the blasting cap with electronic deceleration «Iskra-T», laser fiber optic system of initiation of EXPLOSIVE charges, etc.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Mosinets V.N. Crushing and seismic action of explosion in rocks. Moscow. Nedra, 1976. – 271 p.
  2. Zeitlin Ya.I., Smoliy N.So. Seismic and shock waves of industrial explosions. M. Nedra, 1981. – 192 p.
  3. Sadovsky, M.A., Geophysics and physics of explosion. M.: Nedra, 1997. – 334 p.
  4. Mining and processing of uranium ores. Monograph. Under the General editorship of A. P. Chernov. Kiev. «ADEF – Ukraine». 2001, – 238 p.
  5. Bibik I.P., Ershov V.P., Bushes, Etc. the Technological scheme of drilling and blasting in terms geroy–sardaryinsky phosphorite Deposit//Mining Bulletin of Uzbekistan. – 2006. – №4 (27). – P. 36-37.
  6. Kutuzov B.N., Ekvist B.V., Bragin P.A. А Comparative assessment of the seismic impact of the blast hole charges when the nonelectric initiation of electric detonators with electronic delay. //Mining journal. -2008. – №12. – P. 44-46.
  7. Kutuzov B.N., Equist B.V., Bragin Р.A. Results of industrial tests of electric detonators with electronic deceleration / Collection of Explosive matter-M: Izd-vo MVK on VD at the Academy of mining Sciences, 2009 – №101/58. – P. 147-153.
  8. DSTU 4704:2008. The holding of promislovih wybuchu. Normie seismically safe. Vzamin DSTU-P4704: 2006. Enter. 01.01.2009// Derjstandart Ukraine. 2009. – 10s.
  9. Kovalenko I.L., Kuprin V.P. Interaction of emulsion explosives and sulfide minerals // the Explosive case. – 2010. – № 103/60. – P. 154-170.
  10. Nikulova V. G., Timonina T. V. High safety electric Detonator with specified parameters. Explosive case. – 2010. – № 103/60. – P. 241-255.
  11. Khomenko O.E. Design automation of passports blasting through the optimisation of the placement of the holes / O. E. Khomenko, D. V. Rudakov, M. N. Kononenko / Forum girnikiv: materials Minar. sciences'.- prakt. Conf. – D.: RVC NSU, 2011. – P. 39 – 43.
  12. Khomenko O.E. Automation of drill and blast design / O. Khomenko, D. Rudakov, M. Kononenko // Scholl Underground Mining: New techniques and technologies in mining. – Netherlands: CRC Press, Balkema, 2011. – P. 271 – 275.
  13. Lyashenko V.I., Kislyi P.A. Seismic monitoring of underground development of uranium deposits / / Nonferrous metallurgy. -2013. – №6-P. 23-32.
  14. Lyashenko V.I., Kislyi P.A. Increase of seismic safety of underground development of complex structural fields. Nonferrous metallurgy.-2014.- №4.- P. 21-31.
  15. Lyashenko V. I., P. A. Sour rationale for the permissible speeds of displacement of the soil near buildings with underground mining of near-surface reserves under city building// Nonferrous metallurgy. -2014. – №6. – P. 17-28.
  16. Lyashenko V.I., Kislyi P.A. Justification of seismic safety parameters of explosions in underground development of near-surface reserves of the field under urban development. Izvestiya vuzov. Mining journal. – 2015. – №2. – P. 84-93.
  17. Lyashenko V.I., Acidic N.A Scientific framework for seismic measurements in the area of blasting works in mines// Nonferrous metallurgy. -2015. – №2. – P. 15-28.
  18. Lyashenko, V.I. Seismic safety during blasting under the urban construction, is a reliable instrument and methodological support// the Bulletin of ferrous metallurgy.-2017.- №5.-Pp. 14-23.
  19. Lyashenko, V.I., Golik V.I. Scientific and design–technological support of uranium production development. Achievements and tasks//Mining information and analytical Bulletin . -2017. – №7. – P. 137-152.
  20. Lyashenko V.I., Golik V.I., Konashenko V.I., Sour P.A. Increasing the efficiency of explosive works in mines// Collection of «explosion technology».- 2018. No 119/76.
  21. Jonson D. Controlled shock waves and vibrations during large and intensive blasting operations under Stockholm city // Workshop on Tunneling by Drilling and Blasting hosted by the 10th Int. Symp. On fragrance due to Blasting (Fragblast 10), New Delhi, India, 24 – 25 November, 2012. P. 49-58.
  22. Monalas F.I., Arusu T. Blasting works in urban area A Singapore case study // Workshop on Tunneling by Drilling and Blasting hosted by the 10th Int. Symp. On Fragmentation due to Blasting (Fragblast 10), New Delhi, India, 24-25 November, 2012, P 23-30.
  23. Huang F.W., Liu D.Y., Luo H., Liu B. Analysis on attenuation-amplification effect and vibration monitoring of pier-beam of continuous beam bridge under near blasting // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2013. Vol. 353-356. P. 1919-1922.
  24. Gupta I.D., Trapathy G.R. Comparison of construction and mining blast with specific reference to structural safety // Indian Mining and Engineering Journal. 2013. Vol. 54. No. 4. P. 13-17.
  25. Cardu M., Seccatore J., Vaudagna A., Rezende A., Galvão F., Bettencourt J. S., Tomi de G. Evidence of the influence of the detonation sequence in rock fragrance by blasting. Part I // REM: Revista Escola de Minas. 2015. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 337-342.
  26. Woodward K., Wesseloo J. Observed spatial and temporal behavior of seismic rock mass response to blasting // Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2015. Vol. 115. No. 11. P. 1044-1056.
UDC 622.235:622.831
V.N. Tyupin, Professor, Dr. Tech. Sciences, Professor
(Belgorod State National Research University, NIU BelGU, Belgorod, Russia)

Determination of safe distances when conducting mass explosions near the processed space in the cracked mountain massives

Keywords: massive explosions, mined-out space, open surface workings, cameras, caves, the permissible elastic deformation, the calculation formula, numerical calculations,authenticity

The article substantiates the need to determine the safe distances from the site of a mass explosion (underground or open mining) to the open surface of an underground mine, chamber or cave. A theoretical formula for determining the safe distance is obtained, less than which irreversible deformations occur and the open surfaces of the mountain mass collapse. Numerical calculations by the formula in various mining-geological and mining conditions (mines of PJSC "Priargunskoe Production Mining and Chemical Association", open-underground development of the Tyrnyauz deposit, Haetai cave in the Transbaikal region, convergence of calculated and actual data on the displacement speed of the massif in mass explosions) indicate the validity of the resulting formula, which can be used for preliminary calculations of the safe distance. The formula takes into account the stability of the array, its stress state in the outcrop area, the degree of influence of one or another BWR parameter on the safe distance to the protected object. Using the formula will allow you to adjust the parameters of a mass explosion in order to reduce its negative impact on the exposed surfaces of the worked out space.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Trubetskoy K.N., Chanturiya V.A., Kaplunov D.R., Rylnikova M.V. Integrated development of deposits and deep processing of mineral raw materials. – M.: Science, 2010. – 437 with.
  2. Kaplunov D.R., Kalmykov V.N., Rylnikova M.V. Combined geotechnology. – Moscow: Publishing House «Ore and Metals», 2003. – 560 p.
  3. Yakovlev V.L., Sokolov I.V., Sakantsev G.G., Kravchuk I.L. Investigation of transient processes in combined mining of ore deposits // Mining Journal. 2017. No. 7. P. 46-50. DOI: 10.17580 / gzh.2017.07.08.
  4. ShaposhnikYu.N., Neverov A.A., Neverov S.A., Nikolsky A.M. Evaluation of the influence of accumulated voids on the safety of the completion of the Artemyevsky deposit // FTIRPI. 2017. №3. P.108-118.
  5. Baryshnikov V.D., Fedyanin A.S., Pul E.K., Baryshnikov D.V. The results of geomechanical monitoring of the subarray massif of the Mir mine of ALROSA // FTIPRII.2017.№1. P.38-46.
  6. Adushkin V.V., Kishkina S.B., Kulikov V.I., Pavlov D.V. and others. Construction of a monitoring system for potentially hazardous areas of the Korobkovskoye deposit of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly // FTIPRII.2017.№4. C.3-13.
  7. Sokolov I.V., Smirnov A.A., Antipin Yu. G., Nikitin I.V. Methodology of the choice of underground geotechnology for the development of transition zones in the combined development of ore deposits // Mining Journal. 2018. P.22-26. DOI: 10.17580 / gzh.2018.01.03.
  8. Handbook of the explosive. Ed. B.N. Kutuzov. -M.: Nedra, 1988. 511 p.
  9. Tyupin V.N. Explosive and geomechanical processes in fractured tense mountain massifs. – Belgorod: Publishing house «Belgorod» of the National University of BelSU, 2017. – 192 p.
  10. Mosinets V.N. Crushing and seismic action of explosion in rocks. – Moscow: Nedra, 1976. 271 p.
  11. Bakharev L.V., Ravikovich B.S., Zemlyanoy G.I., Velinsky S.P. State, problems, ways to solve them and prospects for the development of open mining operations // Mining Journal. – 1990. – № 9, p. 18-23.

Section 5. Information, chronicle
Rakishev Bayan Rakishevich (to the 85 anniversary from the birthday)
70th anniversary of Vasily Ivanovich Liashenko

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