"Explosion technology"— scientific and technical journal

Journal was founded in 1922 by a group of engineers. In Russia and the CIS "Explosion technology" is the only one peer-reviewed specialized periodical in the field of blasting.

Issue 125/82 (2019)

Theory and practice of blasting work

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Section 1. State and improvement of explosives, devices and blasting agents
UDC 622.235.5
A.A. Sysoev, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences
I. B. Katanov, Doctor of Technical Sciences
(KuzSTU named after T.F. Gorbachev, Kemerovo, Russia)
S.A. Kondratyev, Chief Executive Officer
(JSC «NMZ «Iskra», Novosibirsk, Russia)

Experimental check of the probabilistic model of short-delay initiation of downhole charges system

Keywords:mass explosions, electronic means of initiation, seismic impact, seismogram, displacement velocity

The article formulates the basic principles of the methodology for calculating the actual time of initiation of downhole charges system at short-delay blasting, based on the normal law of distribution of downhole and surface detonators firing time. As an example, there has been performed a calculation of the number of charges falling into 20 ms simultaneity groups with overall explosive weight in these groups, while using pyrotechnic downhole detonators ISKRA-S and hybrid electronic detonators ISKRA-T. The calculation results have been compared with seismograms of displacement velocities, recorded during blasting of the corresponding blocks in certain mining conditions. It is shown that the calculated histograms of mass distribution into simultaneity groups are consistent with the position of the displacement velocities peaks in seismograms. Application of hybrid electronic detonators ISKRA-T allows to decrease the number of charges, initiated within an interval below 20 ms.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Federal norms and rules of industrial safety. Rules of safety during the explosive works: collection of documents. Series 13. Release 14. – M.: Joint stock company "Scientific and technological research center of for industrial problems safety. 2014. – 332 p. (with amendments dated November 30, 2017 No. 518).
  2. Grib G.V. Dependence of seismic impact of blast in a rock mass on the technological conditions for blast operations / G.V. Grib, A.Yu. et al. // Bulletin of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Volume 14, No. 1 (8), 2012
  3. Sysoev A.A. Analysis of systems for initiating downhole charges in open pits// Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Mining Journal. 2016. No. 4. P. 60-67.
  4. Kondratyev S.A. Modern means of initiation of JSC "NMZ "Iskra". S.A. Kondratyev, S.A. Pozdnyakov, A.S. Ivanov, K.A. Vandakurov // Blasting. –2019. – No. 123/80. – P. 136-144.
  5. Mashukov I.V. Calculation of safe distances for seismic impact of mass explosions onto buildings and constructions with consideration of downhole charge blast design. /I.V. Mashukov, V.P. Domanov, A.G. Serg, D.A. Yegorov // Bulletin of Scientific center for blast operations safety in coal mining. 2013. No. 1.2. pp. 6-23.

Section 2. Technology of blasting in the mining of solid minerals
UDC 622.235
D.V. Moldovan is a Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Blasting
V.I. Chernobai is a Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Blasting
K.N. Yastrebova is a Candidate of Engineering Sciences, researcher at the laboratory «Physico-mechanical properties and destruction of rocks»
(Saint-Petersburg Mining University)

The effect of construction charges on the particle size distribution of rock mass

Keywords:opencast mine, charge design, borehole stemming, locking device, ganulometric composition, oversize output, mined rock collapse, reflection waves, delay of the stemming departure

The article describes the characteristics of borehole breaking at mines of building materials. The problem of reaming of the lower part of the ledge in the first row of wells is considered. To solve the problem of mined rock reaming along the toe line of resistance, the article proposes a change in the parameters of the borehole charge, namely the design of the stemming unit. The paper describes the construction of the proposed design of the stemming unit and its effect. Based on the results of theoretical studies, polygon tests of the action of a locking gas-dynamic device were carried out. The tests were carried out at the mines of building materials of Leningrad region. The obtained data were processed and the results of the distribution of the particle size distribution of the mined rock collapse were constructed. The article shows the logarithmic distribution, according to the particle size distribution, based on the data obtained from the explosion in the experimental blocks. Based on all the results obtained, conclusions were drawn about the positive effect of the unit, as well as company received the recommendations of using the stemming.

Bibliographic list:
  1. VilkulYu.G., Peregudov V.V. The influence of particle size of blasted mined rock on technical and economic performance indicators of mines. // Krivoy Rog Technical University, development of ore deposits, publication. 94, 2011. P. 3-7
  2. Rozhdestvensky V.N. Prediction of the quality of crushing of fractured massifs during multi-row blasting of charges // Technology and safety of blasting. Materials of scientific and technical conference «Development of resource-saving technologies in explosive business», 2011 – Yekaterinburg: Publishing House of the Mining Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2012. – P. 38-43.
  3. Kazakov N.N., Zakalinskiy V.M. About the explosion efficiency // Problems of explosives. Collection of articles and reports No. 1, 2002. – P.203.
  4. Sher E.N., Aleksandrova N.I. Investigation of the effect of borehole charge structures on the size of the fracture zone and its development time in rocks during an explosion // Novosibirsk, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences the Journal Physical and technical problems of mining, No. 1, 2007. P. 76 – 85.
  5. Kovalevskiy V.N., Rumyantsev A.E., DambaevZh.G. Quality assessment of facing stone blocks during their explosive separation from the massif by charges of various designs // Development of mineral resources of the north: problems and solutions: Vorkuta Mining Institute (branch) of the Federal State Budgetary Institution of Higher Education «National Mineral Resources University «Gornyy». – Vokruta, 2013. P. 80-82
  6. Baron L.I. Lumpiness and methods of its measuring. – M: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1960. – 122 pages.
  7. Baron L.I., Lichelli G.P. Fracturing of rocks during explosive breaking. – M: Nedra, 1966. – 136 pages.
  8. Baron S.I., Sirotyuk G.N. Testing of the applicability of the Rozin-Rammler equation for calculating the diameter of the middle piece during explosive breaking of rocks. // Collection «Explosive business», Nedra, 1967, No. 62/19.
  9. Kazakov N.N., Viktorov S.D. Determination of the parameters of the collapse of the mined rock repelled by the explosion at the mines. // Physical problems of rock destruction. Novosibirsk, Nedra, 2003. – P. 137-140.
UDC 622.235.5
A.V. Dugartsyrenov, Cand. tech. Sciences, associate Professor, Department of «Fishee»
(Mining Institute of the nitu MISIS, Moscow, Russia)
A.K. Vishnyakov, ved. scientific. employee, Cand. tech. sciences
(Tsniigeolnerud, Kazan, Russia)
R.A. Rakhmanov, sci. employee, Cand. tech. Sciences
(IPKON RAS, Moscow, Russia)

Explosive crushing of mineral salts in the borehole method of their production

Keywords:mineral salts, explosive, borehole charge, charge parameters, fine crushing, adjustable crushing zone

The analysis of influence of various factors on the sizes of zones of regulated crushing and crushing in relation to explosive destruction of a productive layer at extraction of mineral salts by a borehole method is carried out. The dependences of the relative radius of the controlled crushing zone on the initial pressure of the detonation products of the explosive, on the strength of mineral salts are given. These data can be used in the selection of types of industrial explosives depending on the physical and mechanical properties of mineral salts.

Bibliographic list:
  1. RF patent No. 2186208 «Method of borehole extraction of mineral salts» dated 27.07.2002
  2. Vishnyakov A.K., Batalin Yu.V., Khamik V.A. Borehole method to control horizontal chambers on the example of mineral salts deposits. Rational development of subsoil. – No. 5-6. -2014. Pp. 98-105.
  3. Rodionov V.N., Adushkin V.V., Kostyuchenko V.N. et al.: Ed. Sadovsky M. A. Mechanical effect of underground explosion. – Moscow: Nauka, 1971. – 224 p.
  4. Adushkin V.V., Kostyuchenko V.N., Nikolaevsky V.N., Tsvetkov V.M. Mechanics of underground explosion / Moscow: Nedra, 1980.
  5. Tsvetkov V.M., Sizov I.A., Livschits L.D., Lukashov G.G. Destruction and granulometric composition of fragments in an explosion in a fragile environment. Sat. No. 89/46. – M.: Nedra, 1986.
  6. Kryukov G.M., Glazkov Yu.V. Phenomenological quasistatic-wave theory of deformation and destruction of materials by explosion of industrial EXPLOSIVES. – 2003. – No. 11. – 67 S. – M.: publishing house of Moscow state mining University.
  7. Kryukov G.M. Model of explosive loosening of rocks on the quarries. The output of oversized. The average size of pieces of rock in the collapse. Separate articles of the Mountain newsletter. 2005. No. 2.-M.: Moscow state mining University. C.-30.
  8. Kryukov G.M., Belin V.A., Stadnik V.V., Waver P.A., Zhavoronko S.N. Regularities of formation of granulation at explosive crushing of separate blocks of solid materials. Separate articles of GIAB 2009, No. 8. – M.: Publishing house «Mountain book», P-73.
  9. Kryukov G.M., Dokutovich M.I., Zhavoronko S.N. Theoretical estimation of the average size of a piece in the zone of controlled crushing of rocks by explosion. // GIAB. Single release of «Еxplosion technology». Ed. Belin V. A. 2007. NO. 107. Pp. 196-199.
  10. Dugartsyrenov A.V. On the equilibrium state of an elastic medium under a camouflage explosion of concentrated and elongated charges in it. obozrenie prikladnoy I promyshlennoy matematiki. – 2005. – Vol. 14, vol. 1. – Pp. 106-107.
  11. Dugartsyrenov A.V. The Physical nature and the mechanism of destruction of rocks during camouflet explosion. The explosive case. Issue #106/63. – Moscow: CJSC «MVK on explosive case at AGN», 2011. – pp. 112-126.
  12. Dugartsyrenov A.V. The Mechanism of destruction of the plastic mountain at a-rod at camouflet explosion. The explosive case. Issue #108/65. – M. 2012. – pp. 134-138.
  13. Belin V.A., Dugartsyrenov A.V., Levkin Yu.M., Kamolov Sh. A. Experimental and industrial tests to improve the efficiency of explosive loosening of complex structural arrays with strong inclusions of the jaroy – Sardar Deposit using a new structure of borehole charges of explosives. – ANALIT. – 2009. – No. 12.OV. – Surveying support of blasting operations. – Pp. 26-34.
  14. Dugartsyrenov A.V., Kim S.I., Kamolov S. A. Features explosion-tion of the destruction complex patterns with layers of hard rocks // Mining Bulletin of Uzbekistan. – Navoi, 2014. – No. 2. – Pp. 72-76
  15. Dugartsyrenov A.V., Kim S. I., Belchenko E.L., Nikolayev S.P. Requirements to the choice of BWR parameters for crushing complex-structured rock masses with combined and additional charges / / Explosive case. – 2015. – No. 113/70. Pp. 142-148.
UDC 622.235.5
S.V. Kokin, CEO, candidate of technical sciences
D.M. Parhomenko, technical director
A.V. Bervin, chief technologist
JSC «KRU-Vzryvprom», Kemerovo, Russia)

Mass explosion parameter management

Keywords:reduction of negative factors, seismic effect, a set of organizational and technical solutions, design of borehole charges, optimal intervals of slowdowns, operating time of the blasting unit

The article describes a number of additional technical solutions that allow to adapt the rock blasting technology to the performance of modern mining equipment while reducing the negative impact from blasting. The article presents a modern approach to conducting mass explosions using domestic means of initiation and downhole charge formation technologies, allowing to reduce the seismic effect from the explosion to a minimum.


Section 3. Usage of combustion processes and the impact of the explosion in industry
UDC 662.2:662.76
R.Sh. Garifullin – associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences
A.A. Mokeev – associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences
A.S. Salnikov – assistant
(Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education «Kazan national research technological University», Kazan, Russia – FGBOU VO «KNITU»)

Full-scale tests of the device based on energy-saturated acid-generating material

Keywords:field tests, device, energy-saturated acid-generating material, acid treatment, oil reservoir, technology, solubility

In the work, full-scale tests of the device based on acid-generating energy-saturated material were carried out and showed its greater efficiency in comparison with the used analogues – technologies of standard acid treatments. In particular, the use of the device based on the acid composition allowed to increase the solubility of the rock by 470%, reduce the reaction time of the acid with the rock by 5.1 times, reduce the number of unreacted acid residues by 2.3 times compared to standard acid treatment. The introduction of this device in the oil fields will create a new method of acid treatments, in which there is no need to pump liquid acids from the surface, while the formation of acid reagents occurs in the bottom-hole zone of the well. This method is more effective and safe, does not require the use of significant amounts of acid reagents, expensive metal-intensive equipment, which significantly reduces the cost of the technology used.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Agliullin M.M., Abdullin V.M., Abdullin M.M. et al. Razrabotka i vnedreniye termobarokhimicheskogo metoda uvelicheniya produktivnosti neftegazovykh skvazhin (Development and implementation of thermobarochemical method of increasing the productivity of oil and gas wells). Vestnik Tyumenskogo neftegazovogo universiteta = Bulletin of Tyumen oil and gas University. 2004. No. 3. pp. 186-189.
  2. Surguchev M.L. Vtorichnyye i tretichnyye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov : uchebnoye posobiye (Secondary and tertiary methods of increasing oil recovery : textbook). – M.: Nedra, 1985. 308 p.
  3. Kudinov V.I. Osnovy neftegazopromyslovogo dela : uchebnoye posobiye (Fundamentals of oil and gas industry : textbook). – Izhevsk: Publishing house IzhGNU. 2004. 720 p.
  4. Petrov A.S., Mokeev A.A., Garifullin R.S. et al. Sgorayemyye kislotogeneriruyushchiye kompozitsii dlya povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Combustible acid-generating compositions for enhanced oil recovery). Vzryvnoye delo = Explosive case. 2018. No. 121/78. pp. 124-135.
  5. Sadykov I.F., Marsov A.A., Mokeev A.A. Universalnyy khimicheskiy reagent dlya kislotnoy obrabotki prizaboynoy zony neftyanykh plastov iz karbonatnykh i terrigennykh porod (Universal chemical reagent for acid treatment of bottom-hole zone of oil formations from carbonate and terrigenous rocks). Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of Kazan technological University. 2013. Vol. 16. No. 13. pp. 190-192.
  6. Mars A.A., Mokeev A.A., Alyshbaev E.A. Pat. 2588523 Russian Federation, IPC E21B 43/18, IPC E21B 43/24. Ustroystvo dlya obrabotki prizaboynoy zony skvazhiny (Device for processing bottom-hole zone of the well). Applicant and patentee OOO «Perfoterm». No. 2015117629/03. Declared. 08.05.15. Publ. 27.06.16. Byul. No. 18.
UDC 004.9
A.R.Mukhutdinov – Professor, doctor of technical Sciences
R.Sh. Garifullin – associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences
M.G. Efimov – postgraduate
(Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education «Kazan national research technological University», Kazan, Russia – FGBOU VO «KNITU»)
Z.R. Vakhidova – associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences
(Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education «Kazan national research technical University», Kazan, Russia – FGBOU VO «KNITU-KAI»)

Explosion welding simulation using ANSYS AUTODYNE

Keywords:computer model, explosion welding, aluminum, steel, performance parameters, explosives, software

The result of this work was a developed and proven technique that allows you to create a computer model of the explosion welding process of two blanks from different materials and determine their pressure at the point of impact for 14 main stages. For work used the software ANSYS AUTODYN. As a result of researches it is established that the computer model in the ANSYS AUTODYN environment allows not only to visualize process of welding by explosion, but also to observe it at different moments of time that it is impossible to make at carrying out full-scale experiments. Since the level range of the collision parameters, which provides a strong connection, is wide enough, it is most accurately determined in the window with a contour view of the process model, from which you can set the numerical value of the pressure at the point of contact.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Zakharenko I.D. Svarka metallov vzryvom (Welding of metals by explosion). Minsk: Science and technology. 1990. 203 p.
  2. Lysak. I., Kuzmin S.V. Svarka vzryvom (Welding explosion). Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 2005. 544 p.
  3. Kuzmin S.V., Chugunov E.A., Lysak V.I. et al. Novaya metodika issledovaniya plasticheskoy deformatsii metalla v okoloshovnoy zone svarivayemykh vzryvom soyedineniy (New method of investigation of plastic deformation of metal in the near-weld zone of explosion-welded compounds). Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov = Physics and chemistry of materials processing. 2000. No. 2. pp. 54-60.
  4. Kornev V.M., Yakovlev I.V. Model volnoobrazovaniya pri svarke vzryvom (Model of wave formation during explosion welding). Fizika goreniya i vzryva = Physics of combustion and explosion. 1984. T. 20. No. 2. pp. 87 – 90.
  5. Greenberg B.A., Elkina O.A., Patselov A.M. et al. Problemy peremeshivaniya i rasplavleniya pri svarke vzryvom (alyuminiy – tantal) (Problems of mixing and melting in explosion welding (aluminum – tantalum). Avtomaticheskaya svarka = Automatic welding. 2012. No. 9. pp.15-22.
  6. Mukhutdinov A.R., Vakhidova Z.R., Efimov M.G. Kompyuternoye modelirovaniye brizantnogo deystviya vzryva (Computer modeling of the explosive action of the explosion). Informatsionnyye tekhnologii = Information technologies. 2016. Vol. 22, No. 5. pp. 340-343.
  7. Mukhutdinov A.R., Efimov M.G., Alexandrov V.N. et al. Opredeleniye nadezhnosti zashchitnogo ograzhdeniya s ispolzovaniyem kompyuternogo modelirovaniya (Determination of the reliability of protective fencing using computer modeling). Vestnik kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta = Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2017. Vol. 20. No. 22. pp. 94-96.
  8. Mukhutdinov A.R., Efimov M.G. Osnovy primeneniya ANSYS Autodyn dlya resheniya zadach modelirovaniya bystroprotekayushchikh protsessov: uchebnoye posobiye (Basics of ANSYS Autodyn application for solving problems of modeling of fast-flowing processes: textbook). Kazan: Publishing house of KAZAN state technical University. 2016. 244 p.

Section 4. Overview of achievements in the world practice of blasting
UDC 622.235
H.P. Rossmanith
(Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Mechanics
WiednerHauptstr. 8-10/325, A-1040 Vienna, Austria)

The use of lagrange diagrams in precise initiation blasting. Part i: two interacting blastholes

Keywords:deceleration, blast holes, rock fragmentation, fracture mechanics

Using the concept of Lagrange diagrams this contribution details the calculation of the delay timebetweenblastholes in a row and rows of blastholes with respect to precise initiation timing within the new advancedblasting technology which is based on the use of electronic detonators.
After introducing the representations of stress waves and cracks, this contribution focuses on the role ofstress wave interaction in optimal fragmentation in surface blasting and bench blasting. Part I of the paperconsiders two interacting blast-holes, Part II will be devoted to three or more out of plane interactingblastholes, whereas Part III will treat the interaction with a free face such as encountered in bench blasting.
A few simplifying assumptions have been made in this paper with respect to the rock mass as well as themechanical treatment. The essential assumptions include that the rock mass is treated as a continuum withfinite tensile and compressive strength and the effects of structural geology are not taken into account. Inaddition, the analysis in Part I is simplified by two `educational' assumption, that all waves are plane (i.e.,one-dimensional) waves and three-dimensional effects of finite size blastholes and charges are not taken into account.
This contribution will also show that knowledge in wave propagation and fracture mechanics is essentialfor the successful application of the new blasting technique in industry. In particular, the delay time, thewave speeds in the rock mass, the shape of the wave pulse and the acoustic impedance mismatch (notconsidered in this paper) have become decisive parameters in advanced blasting.
Utilizing the wave speed and wave shapes of detonations, large scale tests in various countries (Australia,Chile, etc.) have shown that optimal delay timing requires shorter delay times in conjunction with allowingfor a wider drilling pattern and the use of a grossly reduced amount of explosives, i.e., a lower powderfactor. This seemingly contradictory arrangement is fully justified by using scientific principles in blasting, and converting blasting from an art to a scientific discipline.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Lopez, C.J., Lopez-Jimeno, E. and Ayala Carcedo, F.J.: Drilling and Blasting of Rocks. A.A. Balkema Publishers, The Netherlands, 1995.
  2. Rossmanith, H.P.: Collection of Reports Published by the Fracture and Photo-Mechanics Laboratory of the Institute of Mechanics at Vienna University of Technology, 1978-2002.
  3. Rossmanith, H.P. (ed.): Teaching and Education in Fracture and Fatigue. E&FN SPON (a Chapman & Hall Publication), London, 1996.
  4. Rossmanith, H.P. (ed.): Rock Fracture Mechanics. CISM Course # 275. Springer-Verlag, Vienna, New York, 1983.
  5. Fourney, W.L. et al.: Collection of Reports Published by the Photomechanics Laboratory of the University of Maryland, 1973-1987.
  6. Thiess, Co.: Private communication, 1999-2000.
  7. CODELCO/Enaex: Trial Tests With Electronic Detonators. Private communication. Chuquicamata Mine, Chile, 2000.
  8. Blair, D.P. and Armstrong, L.W.: The Spectral Control of Ground Vibration Using Electronic Delay Detonators. Fragblast 3 (1999), pp. 303-334.
  9. Cunningham, C.V.B.: The Effect of Timing Precision on Control of Blasting Effects. In: Proc. 1st World Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques «Explosives and Blasting Technique», Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 123-128.
  10. Holmberg, R. (ed.): Explosives & Blasting Technique. In: Proc. 1st World Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques «Explosives and Blasting Technique», Munich, Germany, 2000.
  11. Rossmanith, H.P.: The Influence of Delay Timing on Optimal Fragmentation in Electronic Blasting. In: Proc. 1st World Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques «Explosives and Blasting Technique», Munich, Germany, 2000, pp. 141-147.
  12. Yamamoto, M., Ichijo, T., Inaba, T., Morooka, K. and Kaneko, K.: Experimental and Theoretical Study on Smooth Blasting With Electronic Delay Detonators. Fragblast 3 (1999), pp. 3-24.
  13. Graff, K.F.: Wave Motion in Elastic Solids. Oxford University Press/Dover Publications, Oxford, 1975.
  14. Rossmanith, H.P. (ed.): Fracture Research in Retrospect.Balkema, The Netherlands, 1997.
  15. Rinehart, J.S.: Stress Transients in Solids. Hyperdynamics, Santa Fe, NM, USA, 1975.
  16. Rossmanith, H.P. and Fourney, W.L.: Fracture Initiation and Stress Wave Diffraction at Cracked Interfaces in Layered Media: I.- Brittle-Brittle-Transition. Rock Mechanics 14 (1982), pp. 209-233.
  17. Kanninen, M.F. and Popelar, C.H.: Advanced Fracture Mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985.
  18. Atkinson, B.K. (ed.): Fracture Mechanics of Rock. Academic Press, New York, 1987.
  19. Clark, G.B.: Principles of Rock Fragmentation. Wiley, New York, 1987.
  20. Broek, D.: The Practical Use of Fracture Mechanics. Kluwer Academic Press, Dodretch, 1998.
  21. Daehnke, A., Rossmanith, H.P. and Kouzniak, N.: Dynamic Fracture Propagation Due to Blast-Induced High Pressure Gas Loading. Rock Mechanics Tools & Techniques. In: Proc. 2nd North American Rock Mechanics Symp., Montreal.Balkema, The Netherlands, 1996, pp. 619-626.
  22. Daehnke, A., Rossmanith, H.P. and Schatz, J.F.: On Dynamic Gas Pressure Induced Fracturing. Fragblast 1 (1997), pp. 73-98.
  23. Rossmanith, H.P., Uenishi, K. and Kouzniak, N.: Blast wave propagation in rockmass – part I: Monolithic medium. Fragblast 1 (1997), pp. 317-359.
UDC 622.235
M. Chatziangelou & B. Christaras
(Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 546 31, Greece)

A geological classification of rock mass quality and blast ability for intermediate spaced formations

Keywords:Blast ability, discontinuities, geological classification, rock mass

Success in the excavation of geological formations is commonly known as being very important in asserting stability. Furthermore, when the subjected geological formation is rocky and the use of explosives is required, the demands of successful blasting are multiplied. The present paper proposes the Blast ability Quality System (BQS), for organizing the classification of geological formations, using the change of the Blast ability Index (BI) in relation to the rock mass quality. The BQS combines the blast ability and the quality of rock masses with intermediate spaced (0,1-1m). The Blast-ability Quality System (BQS) can be an easy and widely – used tool as it is a quick evaluator for blast ability and rock mass quality at one time. Taking into consideration the research calculations and the parameters of BQS, what has been at question in this paper is the effect of blast ability in a geological formation with intermediate spaced discontinuities.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Z.T. Bieniawski, «Engineering rock mass classifications» New York: Wiley, 1989.
  2. M.PK. Cai, Kaiser, H. Uno, Y. Tasaka, M. Minami, «Estimation of rock mass deformation modulus and strength of jointed hard rock masses using the GSI system» Int J Rock Mecdh Min Sci; vol.41, pp. 3-19, 2004.
  3. M. Chatziangelou, B. Christaras, «Blastability Index on poor quality rock mass» Int. J. of Civil Engineering (IJCE), vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 9-16, 2013.
  4. B. Christaras, M. Chatziangelou, «Blastability Quality System (BQS) for using it, in bedrock excavation» Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Techno-Press Ltd., vol. 51, no.5,pp.823-845, 2014.
  5. K.Hino, «Theory and Practice of Blasting», Noppon Kayaku Co, Ltd, 1959.
  6. E. Hoek, PK. Kaiser, WF. Bawden, «Support of underground excavations in hard rock», Rotterdam, Balkema, 1995.
  7. E. Hoek, A. Karzulovic, «Rock mass properties for surface mines. Slope Stability in Surface Mining», In: Hustralid WA, McCarter MK, van Ayl DJA (eds) Littleton, Colorado: Society for Mining, Metallurgical and Exploration (SME), pp.59-70, 2000.
  8. C.L. Jimeno, E.L. Jinemo & F.J.A. Carcedo, «Drilling & Blasting of Rocks» A.A.Bulkema, Rotterdum, Brookfield Publication, p160-180, 1995.
  9. D. Kaushik, S. Phalguni, «Concept of Blastability – An Update, The Indian Mining & Engineering Journal», vol.42, no.8&9, pp.24-31, 2003.
  10. J.P. Latham and Lu Ping, «Development of a assessment system for the blastability of rock masses», International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 36, pp.41-55, 1999.
  11. P. Lilly, «An Empirical Method of Assessing Rock mass blastability», Large Open Pit Mine Conference, Newman, Australia, pp.89-92, 1986.
  12. F.Mohs, Versucheiner Elementar- Methodezur Naturhistoris chen Best immung und Erkennung von Fossilie» OsterreichLexikon, 1812.
  13. V. Murthy, D. K., R. Raitani, «Prediction of over break in underground tunnel blasting. A case study.» Journal of Canadian Tunnelling Canadian, pp. 109-115, 2003.
  14. Ar. Palmstrom, «Recent developments in rock support estimates by the RMi», J Rock MechTunnellTechn, vol. 6, no.1, pp. 1-19, 2000.
  15. Palmstrom A. «Measurements of and correlations between block size and rock quality designation (RQD).» Tunnels and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 20, 2005, pp. 362-377, www.rockmass.net. 2005.
  16. Ar. Palmstrom, «Combining the RMR, Q and RMi classification systems», www.rockmass.net, 2009.
  17. S.D. Priest & J.A. Hudson, «Discontinuity spacing’s in rock», Int. Jour. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. & Gomech, vol.13, pp.135-148, 1976.
  18. M. Romana, , J.B. Seron, , E. Montalar, «SMR Geomechanics classification: Application, experience and validation», ISRM, Technology roadmap for rock mechanics, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2003.
  19. P. Singh, Am. Sinha, «Rock Fragmentation by blasting», Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, 2012.
  20. H. Sonmez and R. Ulusay, «Modifications to the geological strength index (GSI) and their applicability to stability of slopes», Int J Rock Mech Min Sci; vol.36, pp. 743-760, 1999.
  21. G. Tsiambaos, H. Saroglou, «Excavatability assessment of rock masses using the Geological Strength Index (GSI)», Bull Eng Geol Environ, vol. 69, pp. 13-27, 2010.21.
UDC 622.235
Shrey Arora
(Department of Mining Engineering, NIT Karnataka, Surathkal, India)
Kaushik Dey
(Department of Mining Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India)

Estimation of near-field peak particle velocity: a mathematical model

Keywords:near-field PPV, rock damage, blasting

Peak particle velocity (PPV) is an important parameter in estimation of rock and structural damage. Ingeneral, ground vibration is measured using a seismograph at a distance from the blast face to keep the instrument safe. However, rock damage due to blasting occurs very close to the blast hole and thus, PPV at the damaged zone can not be measured directly. In the far-field observations charge is considered as point source because the distance of measurement is significantly longer than the charge column length. However, in near-field PPV estimation charge length can not be ignored. Thus, a mathematical model is developed for estimation of near-field PPV. In the proposed model, effect of an elemental charge in the charge column is calculated and then summed up for the whole charge column.
Thus, it is assumed that blast waves from all the elemental charges of charge column reached at the point of interest at same time. This can be helpful in assessing the extent of blast-induced rock damage.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Bauer A, Calder PN (1970). Open Pit and Blasting, Seminar Mining Engg. Dept, publication, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, p. 3.
  2. Blair D, Minchinton A (1996). On the damage zone surrounding a single blasthole, Proceedings of Rock fragmentation by blasting, FRAGBLAST-5, (Ed) Mohanty, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 23-24 August, pp. 121-130.
  3. Bogdanhoff I (1996). Vibration measurements in damage zone in tunnel blasting, Proceedings of Rock fragmentation by blasting, FRAGBLAST-5, (Ed) Mohanty, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 23-24 August, pp. 177-185.
  4. Dey K (2004). Investigation of blast-induced rock damage and development of predictive models in horizontal drivages, Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, ISM, Dhanbad, p. 235.
  5. Edwards AT, Northwood TD (1960). Experimental studies of effects of blasting on structures, The Engineer, p. 211.
  6. Holmberg R, Persson PA (1979). Swedish approach to contour blasting, Proceedings of Fourth Conference on explosive and blasting techniques, pp. 113-127.
  7. Langefors U, Kihlström B (1973). The Modern Techniques of rock blasting, John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 473.
  8. Meyer T, Dunn PG (1995). Fragmentation and rockmass damage assessment Sunburst excavator and drill and blast, Proceedings North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, pp. 609-616.
  9. Murthy VMSR, Dey K (2002). Prediction of Overbreak in Underground Tunnel Blasting – A Case Study, North American Rock Mechanics Symposium2002, July 7 to July 10, Toronto, Canada, pp. 1499-1506.
  10. Nicholls HR, Johnson CF, Duvall Wl (1971). Blasting vibrations and their effects on structures, USBM bulletin, 656: 105.
  11. Oriard LL (1982). Blasting effects and their control, SME Handbook, Littleton, Colorado, pp. 1590-1603.
  12. Paventi M, Lizotte Y, Scoble M, Mohanty B (1996). Measuring Rockmass Damage in Drifting, Proceedings of Fifth International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, FRAGBLAST-5, (Ed) Mohanty, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 23-24, pp. 131- 138.
  13. Rustan LN (1985). Controlled blasting in hard intense jointed rock in tunnels, CIM Bulletin, Dec. 78(884): 63-68.
  14. Yang RL, Rocque P, Katsabanis P, Bawden WF (1993). Blast damage study by measurement of blast vibration and damage in the area adjacent to blast hole, Proceedings of Fourth International seminar on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, FRAGBLAST – 4, (Ed) Rossmanith, Vienna, Austria 5-8 July, pp. 137-144.
UDC 622.235
Tannant D.D.
Peterson J.
(Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada)

Evolution of blasting practices at the EKATI™ diamond mine

Keywords:Ekati mine, blasting monitoring, slit formation

A review of blast designs and improved blasting practices at the Ekati Diamond Mine is presented along with the results of three blast-monitoring experiments. Blast monitoring was undertaken to investigate blast damage mechanisms in the mine's well jointed rock mass. Rock mass damage caused by production, pre-shear and wall control blasts was measured. Ekati uses 270mm holes for production blasting, and 165mm holes loaded with a decoupled charge for pre-shearing. The production blasts are loaded with bulk emulsion / ANFO blends. The mine plan involves using 30m double benches. A 30m high pre-shear is drilled and blasted prior to the production blasting that İs done with sequential 15m benches. This paper summarizes the monitoring equipment and data gathered to datе.

Bibliographic list:
  1. BrentG.F. &Smith G.E. 1996. Borehole pressure measurements behind blast limits as an aid to determining the extent of rock damage. Fragblast 5, Proc. 5th In/. Symp. on Rock Fragmentation bv Blasting, Montreal, Balkema, 103-112.
  2. Brent G.F. & Smith G.E. 1999. The detection of blast damage by borehole pressure measurement. Fragblast 6, Proc 6th Int. Symp. on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, Johannesburg, Balkema.
  3. Bulow B.M. & Chapman J. 1994. Limit blast design at Argylle Mine.Proc. Open Pit Blasting Workshop, Curtin University, Perth, 104-109.
  4. Dowding C.H., 1985, Blast Vibration Monitoring and Control, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 297p.
  5. Forsyth W.W., Connors C.& Clark L. 1997. Blast damage assessment al the Trout Lake Mine. Proc. 99h CIM Annual General Meeting, Vancouver, on CD, 9p.
  6. Holmberg R. &Persson P.A. 1979. Design of tunnel perimeter blasthole patterns to prevent rock damage. Proc. /MM Tunnelling '79 Conference, London, 280-283
  7. LeJuge G.E., Jubber L., Sandy D.A. & McKenzie CK. 1994. Blast damage mechanisms in open cut mining, Proc. Open Pit Blasting Workshop, Curtin University. Perth, 96-103.
  8. Lilly J.D. 1987. Achieving pit wall integrity with large diameter blast holes. Proc. 2" International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation Bv Blasting, Keystone, Balkema, 634-645
  9. McKenzie CK.. Holley KG. &LeJuge G.E. 1992. Rock damage from blasting. Proc. Asia Pacific Con/. – Quarrying the Rim, Hong Kong.
  10. OuchterlonyF..Nie S., Nyberg U. & Deng J. 1996. Monitoring of large open cut rounds by VOD, PPV and gas pressure measurements. Fragblast 5, Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Rock Fragmentation bv Blasting, Montreal, Balkema. 167-176.
  11. Peterson J. 1998. Fragmentation Analysis – BHP Diamonds Inc. Ekati Mine. Polar Explosives Ltd., Report to BHP Diamonds, 9p.
  12. Preston C.J. &Teinkamp N.J. 1984. New techniques in blast monitoring and optimization, CIM Bulletin, 77(867), 43-48,
  13. Williamson S.R.& Armstrong M.E. 1986. The measurement of explosive product gas penetration.Proc.'.argeOpen-pitMining Conference, AuslMM, 147-151.
UDC 622.235
Dane Blair
Alan Minchinton
(Orica, Australia)

Near-field blast vibration models

Keywords:Holmberg-Persson field, dynamic finite element model, vibration damage

There is a persistent use of the Holmberg-Persson near-field vibration damage model despite the fact that ten years ago it was shown to be incorrect on the grounds of simple physics. In order to address this problem, the detailed recipe for a new, easily implemented model is presented. This new model, the Scaled Heelan model, is based on a standard Heelan (waveform) model altered to incorporate charge weight scaling. This Scaled Heelan model, thus, maintains some aspects of the original spirit of the Holmberg-Persson approach. A comparison of the Heelan models, a dynamic finite element model (DFEM) and a new full-field model is given, showing good agreement between the DFEM and fullfield solutions in all cases. However, the Heelan models show some discrepancies for certain frequencies of wave propagation, even at large distances from the source. Nevertheless, these Heelan models have value simply because they include influences such as the detonation velocity and the various wave types, and, furthermore, require significantly less computing time than that required for either the DFEM or full-field solutions.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Adamson, W R and Scherpenisse, C R, 1998. The measurement and control of blast induced damage of final pit walls in open pit mining, in Proceedings of 24th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques, Vol II, pp 539-556, (International Society of Explosives Engineers: Cleveland).
  2. Blair, D P, 2005. Seismic radiation from a short cylindrical charge, (Submitted).
  3. Blair, D P, 2004. Charge weight scaling laws and the superposition of blast vibration waves, Int J Blasting and Fragmentation, 8(4):221-239.
  4. Blair, D P and Minchinton, A, 1996. On the damage zone surrounding a single blasthole, in Proceedings Fifth International Symposium on Fragmentation by Blasting – Fragblast 5, (ed: B Mohanty), pp 121-130 (A A Balkema: Rotterdam).
  5. Grady, D E, Kipp, M E and Smith, C S, 1980. Explosive fracture studies on oil shale, Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, October:349-356.
  6. Heelan, P A, 1953. Radiation from a cylindrical source of finite length, Geophysics, 18:685-696.
  7. Holmberg, R and Persson, P A, 1979. Design of tunnel perimeter blasthole patterns to prevent rock damage, in Tunnelling'79. Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Tunnelling, (ed: M J Jones), pp 2870-283 (Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London).
  8. Hustrulid, W and Wenbo, L U, 2002. Some general design concepts regarding the control of blast-induced damage during rock slope excavation, in The Seventh International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, (ed: W Xuguang), pp 595-604 (Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing).
  9. Keller, R and Ryan, J, 2001. Considerations for the excavation of subsurface facilities by drill and blast methods, Yucca Mountain project, in Proceedings of 27th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques, Vol II, pp 39-68, (International Society of Explosives Engineers: Cleveland).
  10. Keller, R and Kramer, N, 2000. Considerations for drill and blast excavation of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, in Proceedings of 26th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques, Vol I, pp 31-46, (International Society of Explosives Engineers: Cleveland).
  11. Larson, D B, 1982. Explosive energy coupling in geologic materials. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci & Geomech Abstr, 19:157-166.
  12. Liu, Q, Tran, H, Counter, D and Andrieus, P, 1998. A case study of blast damage evaluation in open stope mining at Kidd Creek mines, in Proceedings of 24th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques, Vol II, pp 323-336, (International Society of Explosives Engineers: Cleveland).
  13. McKenzie, C K, 1999. A review of the influence of gas pressure on block stability during rock blasting, in Proceedings of Explo '99, (ed: C Workman-Davies), pp 173-179, (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne)
  14. McKenzie, C K and Holley, K G, 2004. A study of damage profiles behind blasts, in Proceedings of 30th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques, Vol II, pp 203-226, (International Society of Explosives Engineers: Cleveland).
  15. Meredith, J A, 1990. Numerical and analytical modelling of downhole seismic sources: the near and far field, PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston.
  16. Minchinton, A and Dare-Bryan, P, 2005. The application of computer modelling for blasting and flow in sublevel caving operations, in 9th AusIMM Underground Operators' Conference 2005, pp 65-73, (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).
  17. Nie, S, 1999. Measurement of borehole pressure history in blast holes in rock blocks, in Proceedings Sixth International Symposium for Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, pp 91-97, (The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg).
  18. Onderra, I and Esen, S, 2004. An alternative approach to determine the Holmberg-Persson constants for modelling near field peak particle velocity attenuation, Int J Blasting and Fragmentation, 8(2):61-84.
  19. Onderra, I, 2004. A fragmentation modelling framework for underground ring blasting applications, Int J Blasting and Fragmentation, 8(3):177-200.
  20. Ryan, J M and Harris S P, 2000. Using state of the art blast modelling software to assist the excavation of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, in 2000 High- Tech Seminar: State-of-the-Art, Blasting Technology, Instrumentation and Explosives Applications, (ed: R F Chiappetta), pp. 407-423, (Blasting Analysis International: Allentown).
  21. Shastri, S M and Malumdar, S, 1982. A dynamic finite element analysis of stress-wave propagation and rock fragmentation in blasting, in Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, (ed: Z Eisenstein), pp 437-447, (A A Balkema: Rotterdam).
  22. Villaescusa, E, Onderra, I and Scott, C, 2004. Blast induced damage and dynamic behaviour of hangingwalls in bench stoping, Int J Blasting and Fragmentation, 8(1):23-40.
UDC 622.235
Shulin Nie
(Swedish Rock Engineering Research, Box 49153, S-100 29 Stockholm, Sweden)

Experimental and numerical study of the dead-pressing of a chemically gassed emulsion explosive

Keywords:explosive, emulsion, dead-pressing, detonability

The detonability of a chemically gassed emulsion explosive has been studied. Blasting experiments in steel pipes and computer simulations have been carried out. This study showed that the tested explosive can tolerate a pressure of 17 MPa before it is dead-pressed. The explosive can also recover its detonability as soon as the compression vanishes. Furthermore, the computer simulation showed that the dead-pressing is a very rapid process, taking approximately 3 ms.
The detonability recovery time is very short, dependant upon the pressure release speed. These simulation results are consistent with the experimental evidence. This paper describes the properties of the explosive, the experimental design and procedure, the simulation principle and algorithm as well as the final results.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Acheson, D.J.1990. Elementary Fluid Dynamics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  2. Atkins, P.W. 1990. Physical Chemistry (4th edn). Oxford, Melbourne, Tokyo: Oxford University Press.
  3. Engsbråten, B. 1995. Private communication. Dyno Nobel AB.
  4. Frey, R.B. 1985. Cavity collapse in energetic materials. 8th International Symposium on Detonation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: 68-77.
  5. Hanasaki, K., Terada, M., Sakuma, N., Yoshida, E. & Matsuda, K. 1993. Studies on the sensitivity of dead pressed slurry explosives in delay blasting. Rock Fragmentation by Blasting – FRAGBLAST-4, Vienna, Austria: 395-400.
  6. Huidobro, J. & Austin, M. 1992. Shock sensitivity of various permissible explosives. 8th Annual Symposium on Explosives and Blasting Research, International Society of Explosives Engineers, Orlando, Florida, USA: 27-41.
  7. Matsuzawa, T., Murakami, M., Ikeda, Y. & Yamamoto, K. 1982. Detonability of emulsion explosives under variable pressure. Journal of the Industrial Explosives Society, Japan 43(5): 321-329.
  8. Nie, S. 1993. A method of studying the dynamic dead-pressing of non-cap-sensitive emulsion explosives. SveBeFo Report DS 1993:3, Stockholm.
  9. Nie, S. 1997. Pressure desensitization of anfo and emulsion explosives. Doctoral Thesis 1016. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
  10. Nie, S., Persson, A. & Deng, J. 1993. Development of a pressure gage based on a piezo ceramic material. Experimental Techniques (May/June): 13-16.
  11. Price, D. 1966. Contrasting patterns in the behaviour of high explosives. 11th International Symposium on Combustion, California, USA: 693-701.
  12. Reddy, G.O. & Beitel, F.P. 1989. Effect of pressure on shock sensitivity of emulsion explosives. 9th Symposium (International) on Detonation, Portland, Oregon, USA: 585-592.

Section 5. Information, chronicle
In memory of Paramonov Gennady Petrovich232-233

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