"Explosion technology"— scientific and technical journal

Journal was founded in 1922 by a group of engineers. In Russia and the CIS "Explosion technology" is the only one peer-reviewed specialized periodical in the field of blasting.

Issue 134/91 (2021)

Theory and practice of blasting work

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Section 1. State and improvement of explosives, devices and blasting agents
UDC 004.94, 539.3
Kantor V. Kh., General Director
(NTF "Explosion Technology", Moscow, Russia)
Rakhmanov R.A., Cand. tech. Sci., Researcher,
Frantov A.E., leading researcher, doctor of technical Sciences
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)
Fadeev V. Yu., technical Director
(TECHNORIN LLC, Moscow, Russia)
Alenichev I.A., Cand. tech. Sci., Lead Drilling and Blasting Engineer
(Polyus Project LLC, Krasnoyarsk, Russia)

Evaluation of operability and determination of optimal parameters of inter¬mediate detonators for initiating borehole charges of explosives in rocks

Keywords:computer simulation, numerical solution, cumulation, segment lining, explosives, ANSYS AUTODYN

The article presents a methodology for assessing the explosive technical parameters of explosives and their explosive effectiveness in an ideal detonation process of explosion development. The issues of analytical studies conducted to substantiate the parameters of intermediate detonators of various diameters are considered. A comparison of powdered, emulsion-chambered and cast TNT blocks of detonators has been carried out. It is shown that the detonation characteristics of the intermediate detonator have a rather limited effect on the development of the detonation process in downhole explosive charges compared with the influence of its mass and size parameters. The diameter of the intermediate detonator mainly determines the numerical values of the total detonation pulse and the total energy of the active mass of the charge.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Avdeev F.A., Baron V.A., Gurov N.V., Kantor V.H. Normative reference book on drilling and blasting. M., "Nedra", 1986.
  2. Andreev K.K., Belyaev A.F. Theory of explosives. M., "Oboronbiz", 1960.
  3. Rodionov V.N., Adushkin V.V., Kostyuchenko V.N. et al. Mechanical effect of underground explosion. M., "Nedra", 1971.
  4. Mosinets V.N. Crushing and seismic effect of explosion in rocks. M., "Nedra", 1976.
  5. Svetlov B.Ya., Yaremenko N.E. Theory and properties of industrial explosives. M., "Nedra", 1973.
  6. Gustavson R. Swedish blasting technique. M., "Nedra", 1977.
  7. Baron V.L., Kantor V.H. Technique and technology of blasting in the USA. M., "Nedra", 1989.
  8. Baum F.A., Orlenko L.P., Stanyukovich K.P., etc. Physics of explosion. M., "Nedra", 1975.
  9. Dubnov L.V., Bakharevich N.S., Romanov A.I. Industrial explosives. M., "Nedra", 1988.
  10. U. Langefors, B. Kilsterm. Modern technique of rock breaking. M., "Nedra", 1968.
  11. K. Juhanson, P.Person. detonation of explosives. M., "Mir", 1973.
  12. Kantor V.H. Principles of designing parameters for blasting borehole charges, taking into account the requirements for the intensity of crushing rock mass. -In the collection "Explosive case", issue No. 97/54. M., 2007.
  13. Andreev S.G., Babkin A.V., Baum F.A., etc. Physics of Explosion. M., Fizmatlit, 2004.
  14. Kukib B.N., Ioffe V.B., Zhuchenko E.I., Frolov A.B. On criteria for assessing the relative operability of industrial explosives. - In the collection "Explosive case", issue No. 8. M., 2007.
UDC 622.235: 662.2
S.A. Gorinov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Leading Researcher (scientific consultant at «Global Mining Explosive-Russia» LLC)
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Estimation of the size of the zone of radial cracks formed in the rocks of productive formations during combustion of a fuel-oxidizing mixture in the well

Keywords:fuel-oxidizing composition, radial cracks, stress intensity coefficient

Among the methods for increasing the productivity of oil and gas wells, methods based on the use of the energy of combustible liquid combustible-oxidative mixtures (LCOM) placed in treated wells to form and develop a fracture zone in the rocks surrounding these wells are widely used. This paper presents a method for estimating the size of the zone of radial cracks in the reservoir rocks surrounding a productive well during the combustion of LCOM placed directly in the well perforation zone, taking into account its chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties of the reservoir rocks and the intensity of fracturing. It is shown that the use of LCOM based on non-sensitized inverse emulsions can be an effective and economically justified solution, provided that the reliable ignition of the emulsion and its stable combustion are ensured. The results obtained make it easier to justify the choice of the LCOM without the need for expensive experiments, which is undoubtedly important and relevant.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Shooting and explosive equipment: reference book/ [L.Ya. Friedlander et al.]; edited by L.Ya. Friedlander - M.: Nedra. - 1990. -278 p.
  2. Merkulov A.A. Scientific basis for creating an effective hydrodynamic connection between a well and a reservoir using explosion energy: Diss. … doc. tech. Sciences: 25.00.17/ Alexander Alekseevich Merkulov. - M. - 2016. - 349 p.
  3. Salnikov A.S. Non-detonating energy-saturated materials based on ammonium nitrate used in oil production intensification technologies/ A. S. Salnikov, R. Z. Gilmanov, A. A. Marsov, A. A. Mokeev, A. S. Petrov// Bulletin of the Technological University. - 2016. - Vol.19. - No.19. - pp. 66-70.
  4. Patent RU 2100583. Composition for thermochemical treatment of wells / Chelyshev V.P., Fazlutdinov K.S., Shkitkin B.V., Kolyasov S.M., Mikhailov A.A., Kroschenko V.D., Parshin M.D., Dyblenko V.P., Khakimov V.S., Georgeychuk V.N. - 12/27/1997.
  5. Patent RU 2153065C1. Method of thermochemical treatment of a productive reservoir and fuel-oxidizing composition for its implementation/ Alexandrov E.N., Shcherbina K.G., Daragan E.V., Domanov G.P., Movshovich E.B. – 07/20/2000.
  6. Patent RU 2126084C1. Method of thermochemical treatment of the bottomhole formation zone/Alexandrov E.N., Shcherbina K.G., Loboiko A.Ya., Sakharov A.A., Daragan E.V., Movshovich E.B., Domanov G.P. – 10.02.1999.
  7. Patent RU 2192543. Fuel-oxidizing composition for processing the bottom-hole zone of the formation/ Alexandrov E.N., Lemenovsky D.A., Daragan E.V., Kashirin A.N., Fomin P.G. - 10.11.2002.
  8. Patent RU 2224884. Method of thermochemical influence on the bottom-hole zone of the formation / Loboiko A.Ya., Bagdasaryan V.S., Sakharov A.A., Vorozhbian M.I. – 02/27/2004.
  9. Patent SU 1816854A1. Method of thermochemical effect on the bottom-hole zone of the formation/ Loboiko A.Ya., Bagdasaryan V.S., Sakharov A.A., Vorozhbian M.I. – 05/23/1993.
  10. Patent US 5183581. Process for the dewaxing of producing formations/ Khalil K.N., Romeu R.K., Rabinovitz A. - 02.02.1993.
  11. Patent RU 2637259. Thermogasochemical binary composition and method of application for processing bottom-hole and remote zones of an oil and gas reservoir / Idiyatullin A.R., Zavolzhsky V.B., Burko A.V., Gankin Yu.A., Sosnin V.A., Burko V.A., Basyuk B.N., Khlestov I.V., Sadriev F.L. - 01.12.2017.
  12. Patent RU 2165011C1. Method of thermochemical treatment of the bottom-hole zone of the formation / Pozdnyshev G.N., Manyrin V.N., Dosov A.N., Manyrin V.N. – 10.04.2001.
  13. Patent RU 2525386C2. Thermogaschemical the composition and method of use for the treatment of bottom-hole and remote zone of the reservoir/ Zavolzhsky V. B., Burke, V. A., idiyatullin A. R., Basyuk B. N., Valesini S. I., Sosnin V. A., Demina T. A., Il'in V. P., Cashew V. A., Sadriev F. L. – 10.08.2014.
  14. Cherepanov G.N. Brittle fracture mechanics/ G. N. Cherepanov. – M.: Science. - 1974– - 640 p.
  15. Martynyuk P.A. Assessment of the zone of radial cracks formed during the camouflage explosion of a cord charge in a brittle medium/ P.A. Martynyuk, E.N. Sher// Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics. - 1984. - No. 4. - pp. 127-132.
  16. Eisenberg D. The structure and properties of water/ D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann. - London: Oxford University Press. – 1969. – 310 p.
  17. Westman R.A. Pressurized star crack/ R.A. Westman // J. Math. and Phys. – 1964. – Vol. 43. – N 3. – P. 191-198.
  18. Silvestrov V.V. Shock compressibility of an emulsion matrix at a pressure up to 37 GPa / V.V. Silvestrov [et al.] // Physics of gorenje i explosion. - 2014. - Vol. 50. - No. 4. - pp.110-116).
UDC 622.235:539.3
Zakalinskii V.M., Doctor of Technical Sciences, leading researcher,
Shipovsky I.E., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Researcher,
Mingazov R.Ya., ved. engineer
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Drilling and blasting in difficult conditions

Keywords:cracks, blasting operations, difficult development conditions, mountain pressure stress, deposit, mines, open-pit operations

The practice of using explosion energy in mining blasting indicates a trend in improving the technology of their implementation, the key aspect of which is the effect of an explosion in difficult conditions. In this article, based on the analysis of some aspects of drilling and blasting during the exploitation of mineral deposits, the theoretical approach of methodological and scientific research is considered, which makes it possible to determine their promising directions. Within the framework of the proposed methodology, an example of studying the stress-strain state and destruction of a rock mass during blasting in difficult conditions is given.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Viktorov S.D. Mekhanika sdvizheniya i razrusheniya gornykh porod (Mechanics of displacement and destruction of rocks). S.D. Viktorov, S.A. Goncharov, M.A. Iofis, V.M. Zakalinskiy /Otv. red. akad. RAN K.N. Trubetskoy; In-t problem kompleksnogo osvoeniya nedr im. akademika N.V. Mel'nikova RAN (Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences). Moscow. 2019. 360 p.
  2. Malinnikova O.N., Trofimov V.A., Shipovskiy I.E. Chislennoe modelirovanie napryazhenno - deformirovannogo sostoyaniya i razrusheniya massiva gornykh porod pri vzryvnykh rabotakh (Numerical modeling of the stress-strain state and destruction of a rock mass during blasting operations). Materialy XII Vserossiyskiy s''ezd po fundamental'nym problemam teoreticheskoy i prikladnoy mekhaniki (Russian Congress on fundamental problems of theoretical and applied mechanics). T. 3: Mekhanika deformiruemogo tverdogo tela. Ufa: RITs BashGU. 2019. pp. 710-712. DOI: 10.22226/2410-3535-2019-congress-v3.
  3. Geomekhanicheskie protsessy v geologicheskoy srede gornotekhnicheskikh sistem i upravlenie geodinamicheskimi riskami: monografiya (Geomechanical processes in the geological environment of mining systems and geodynamic risk management: monograph). A.A. Kozyrev, S.N. Savchenko, V.I. Panin, I.E. Semenova, V.V. Rybin, Yu.V. Fedotova, S.A. Kozyrev i dr. Apatity: KNTs RAN. 2019. 431 p.
  4. Shipovskiy I.E. Raschet khrupkogo razrusheniya gornoy porody s ispol'zovaniem bessetochnogo metoda (Calculation of brittle fracture of rock using the mesh-free method) Naukoviy vіsnik NGU. NGU Dnіpropetrovs'k, 2013. Issue. 1(145). 2015. pp. 76-82.
  5. Wilkins, Mark L. Computer simulation of dynamic phenomena / Mark L. Wilkins. Springer, 1999. 246 p.
  6. Drucker D.C., Prager W. Soil mechanics and plastic analysis for limit design. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics. 1952. Vol. 10, N 2. pp. 157-165.

Section 2. Technology of blasting in the mining of solid minerals
UDC 622.235
B.R. Rakishev, Professor of the Department of Mining, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan,
A.A. Orynbai, sci. employee, doctoral student of the Department of "Mining"; AUES: senior lecturer of the Department of "Electronics and Robotics",
A.B. Musakhan, Jr. scientific. employee, doctoral student of the Mining Department
(KazNITU named after K.I.Satpayev, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan)

Automated determination of the parameters of the fan arrangement of charges in the treatment faces of underground workings

Keywords:limiting explosive cavity, zone of intensive crushing, fan arrangement of wells, analytical determination of parameters of fan charges, computer-aided design of parameters of fan charges

The article describes an analytical method for determining the parameters of the fan distribution of explosive charges in the treatment faces of underground workings. The method is based on the principle of rational placement of explosive charges in the exploding array, which provides for the greatest coverage of the broken rock layer by cracks formed by the action of the explosion. This requirement is ensured by the necessary sizes of zones of intensive and passive crushing of rocks during explosive explosion. To determine these sizes, a step-by-step model of the destruction of a rock mass by an explosion has been adopted. According to it, the main destruction of the genus occurs during the first two stages. Formulas for calculating the sizes of fine crushing zones and radial cracks are given. Based on them, an analytical method has been developed for determining the parameters of the fan arrangement of explosive charges in underground treatment workings, a software module has been created for automated calculation of the parameters of the BVR with the fan arrangement of wells in the treatment faces. An example of its use is shown.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Pokrovsky G.I., Fedorov I.S. The effect of impact and explosion in deformable media. -M., 1957.-276 p.
  2. Rakishev B.R. Generation of Granulometric Composition of Broken Rocks in Frag-mentation by Bench Blasting (2020) Journal of Mining Science, 56 (1), pp. 36 - 46, DOI: 10.1134/S1062739120016466
  3. Rakishev B.R., Orynbay A.A., Musakhan A.B., Toleuov K.A. Justification of cy-lindrical entry cut geometry in underground mine gallery [Justification of parameters of cylindrical log in horizontal underground mining] (2021) Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin, 2021 (12), pp. 31 - 46, DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2021_12_0_31
  4. Rakishev B.R., Orynbay A.A., Mussakhan A.B., Tuktibayev A.I. Computer-aided design of rational parameters for the location of blasthole charges in horizontal underground de-velopment (2021) Mining Technology: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, DOI: 10.1080/25726668.2021.1977903
  5. Rakishev B., Rakisheva Z.B., Auezova A.M., Orynbay A.A. Digital hierarchical model of lumpiness of blasted rock mass (2020) Mining Technology: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 129 (4), pp. 228 - 237, DOI: 10.1080/25726668.2020.1838775
  6. Nikiforovsky V.S., Shemyakin E.I. Dynamic destruction of solids. Novosibirsk, 1979. 272 p.
  7. Physics of explosion [Edited by K.P. Stanyukovich]. M., 1975.704 p.
  8. Khanukaev A.N. Physical processes during the breaking of rocks by explosion. M., 1974– - 223s.
  9. Adushkin V.V., Sukhotin A.P. On the destruction of a solid medium by explosion // PMTF.-1961. - No. 4. - pp.94-102.
  10. Mechanical effect of an underground explosion [Rodionov V.N., Adushkin V.V. et al.]. - M., 1971– - 200s.
  11. Rakishev B. R., Rakisheva Z.B. Basic Characteristics of the Stages of Rock Massif Destruction by Explosive Crushing//Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Physical Problems of Rock Destruction - Beijing, China. - 2011. – P. 65-69.
  12. Microsoft Visual Studio [Electronic resource] – access mode. https://www.visualstudio.com/
  13. Kozyrev S.A., Abrashitov A.Yu., Onuprienko V.S., Volkov A.V. The perfection of explosive rebound technology in the development system with a sub-storey collapse and end ore release at the underground mines of the Khibiny deposits // Mining Journal. - 2019. - No. 11. - pp. 67-72. - DOI 10.17580/gzh.2019.11.12.
  14. Marysyuk V. P., Sabyanin G. V., Trofimov A.V., Kirkin A. P. Determination of the parameters of borehole explosive charges during treatment stripping based on the calculation of ore destruction and zoning zones by physico-mechanical properties // Mining Journal. - 2020. - No. 1. - P. 58- DOI 10.17580/gzh.2020.01.11.
  15. Dugatsyrenov A.V., Rakhmanov R.A. Assessment of the effect of air gaps on the efficiency of blasting borehole charges. Explosive business, - 2019. - No.122/79, -pp.59-70
  16. Rozhkov A.A. Methodology for calculating the parameters of the dispersal of borehole rows in a fan. Explosive case, - 2019. - No.122/79, -pp.121-135
UDC 622.235
Belin V.A., prof., doctor of tech. Sciences
(Mining Institute NUST MISiS, Moscow, Russia)
Bolotova Yu.N., post-graduate student
(Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "North Caucasian Mining and Metallurgical Institute" (State Technological University)"

Influence of various parameters of drilling and blasting operations in the edge protection of iron ore open pit mines on the efficiency of mining operations

Keywords:fortress, drilling-and-blasting works, specific expense, explosive, prikonturny zone, shielding, jointed zone, scheme of placement of charges, charge design, detonation speed

With increase depth of development of iron ore pits is observed high probability of a collapse of separate ledges. Onboard pits, sometimes in close proximity, there are constructions of infrastructure of the mountain enterprise and inhabited constructions which are affected by mass explosions on career. As a result of destroying impact of such mass explosions under threat of damage or destruction protected objects get, and the design contour of a pit can be exposed to the strengthened influence and doesn't meet the requirements of preservation of stability. Increase of efficiency of such scheme of conducting explosive works in a prikonturny zone of iron ore pits, requires carrying out special researches of physics and technology properties of breeds.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Rakishev B.R., Nurieisova M.B., Kasymkanova H.M. Stability of sides of ore pits and dumps. Almaty: KazNTU, 2006, 131 p.
  2. Mosinets V.N. Crushing and seismic effect of explosion in rocks. - M., 2006. - 271 p.
  3. Zeitlin Ya.I. To the calculation of the power of the security target during explosions. - In the collection: Explosive business. - M.: Nedra, 1997. - No. 78/35.
  4. Shuifer M.I., Krasnov Yu.K. Some issues of the study of the seismic effect of explosions and the determination of earthquake-safe charge weights at the construction of the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP. - Proceedings of the Hydroproject. - M., 1994. - Issue 43. - pp. 165-168.
  5. V.A. Borovikov, A.V. Ryskunov, V.K. Slastenko. Parameters of the stress wave during the explosion of low-density explosives. - In the collection: Explosive case. - M.: Nedra, 1999. - No. 92/49/.- pp.42-46
  6. Borovikov V.A. Some theoretical aspects of preliminary crevice formation. - Physical processes of mining production. - Mezhvuzovsky sb. - S.Pb., 2005. - Issue 2. - pp. 69-73.
  7. To calculate the parameters of stress waves during explosion / Borovikov V.A., Misnik Yu.M., Moiseev S.I. et al. - Mining and construction and exploding works. - Collection of Works, 2003. - Issue 1. - pp. 32-42.
  8. Belin V.A. Explosive destruction of fractured massif separations taking into account the engagement forces in the collection: Intensification and control of mining production by physico-chemical methods. M., MGI, 1985, pp.19-22
  9. Belin V.A., Ganopolsky M.I., Baron V.L. and others. Methods of conducting blasting operations. Special explosive works: A textbook / edited by prof. V.A. Belin. / M.:Moscow State University, 2007. 563 p.
  10. Rakishev B.R. Determining the size of fracture zones in an array of rocks at borehole crushing charges / B.R. Rakishev // Sb. "Explosive business". - M.: IPKON RAS, 2010. - No.103/60. - pp. 53-65.
  11. V.M. Markochev, M.I.Alymov. On the theory of brittle fracture by J. Frenkel and A.Griffiths. Chebushevsky Sat., 2017. Volume 18, issue 3, pp.381-393.
  12. Graur M.I. Control of the process of rock destruction during contour blasting in order to obtain stable slopes of ledges in quarries: dissertation of Candidate of Technical Sciences: 01.04.07. - Moscow 1981. - 201 p.
UDC 662.2-391.4
R.A. Kryev - associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences,
A.M. Korobkov - Professor, Doctor of technical Sciences,
G.I. Garifullina - assistant,
V.O. Dryakhlov - associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences,
E.S. Petrov - associate Professor, Candidate of chemical Sciences
(Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education «Kazan national research technological University», Kazan, Russia)

Theoretical assessment of the possibility of using pyrotechnic compositions for the de-clining of oil reservoirs

Keywords:pyrotechnic composition, hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid, oil reservoir decontamination, thermodynamic parameters, chemically active substances

Research has been carried out on the development of pyrotechnic compositions capable of generating highly heated gas and vapor products chemically active with respect to the clay component of oil formations in the conditions of a well. As a result of the research, the components of pyrotechnic compositions capable of release during combustion of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids were selected. Calculations of the thermodynamic parameters of the combustion products of pyrotechnic compositions containing the proposed components were carried out, and the most suitable composition for use as a reservoir decompiner with a component ratio: ammonium nitrate / potassium nitrate / polytrifluoroethylene / polyvyl chloride equal to 65/12/8/15 was determined.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Kosarev A.A., Mokeev A.A., Gilmutdinov D.K. i dr. Produkty goreniya tverdotoplivnyh zaryadov: ocenka effektivnosti dejstviya na karbonatnye porody (Gorenje products of solid fuel charges: evaluation of the effectiveness of action on carbonate rocks). Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of Kazan technological University. 2015. Vol. 18. No. 17. pp. 77-79.
  2. Petrov A.S., Mokeev A.A., Garifullin R.Sh. i dr. Sgoraemye kislotogeneriruyushchie kompozicii dlya povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Combustible acid-generating compositions for enhanced oil recovery). Vzryvnoe delo = Explosive business. 2012. No 121-78. pp. 124-134.
  3. Gagarkin D.M., Mokeev A.A., Marsov A.A. i dr. Issledovanie energonasyshchennyh materialov, primenyaemyh v tekhnologii kompleksnoj perforacii skvazhin (Research of energy-saturated materials used in the technology of complex perforation of wells). Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of Kazan technological University. 2012. Vol.15, No.24, pp. 122.
  4. Chipiga S.V., Sadykov I.F., Marsov A.A. i dr. Ustrojstvo i tekhnologiya dlya kompleksnoj perforacii i termogazokislotnoj obrabotki prizabojnoj zony skvazhiny (Device and technology for complex perforation and thermal-gas-acid treatment of the bottom-hole zone of the well). Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of Kazan technological University. 2012. Vol.15, No.24, pp. 126.
  5. Mokeev A.A., Salnikov A.S., Badretdinova L.H. i dr. Issledovanie kombinirovannyh zaryadov energonasyshchennyh materialov dlya obrabotki neftyanyh skvazhin (Investigation of combined charges of energy-saturated materials for oil well treatment). Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of Kazan technological University. 2014. Vol.17, No.15, pp. 268-269.
  6. Patent of the Russian Federation №2469189. Sposob obrabotki prizabojnoj zony skvazhiny (The method of processing the bottom-hole zone of the well).
UDC 622.235
Umarov F.Ya., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Director,
Nasirov U.F., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Deputy Director,
Nutfulloev G.S., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Quality Control of Education
(Almalyk Branch of the National Research Technological University "MISiS", Almalyk, Uzbekistan)
Zairov Sh.Sh., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of "Mining",
Sharipov L.O., senior lecturer of the Department of "Mining of rare and radioactive metals"
(Navoi State Mining Institute, Uzbekistan, Navoi)
Gaibnazarov B.A., Senior lecturer of the Mining Department
(Almalyk branch of Tashkent State Technical University named after Islam Karimov, Almalyk, Uzbekistan)

Efficient use of explosion energy by strong interlayers during industrial explosions in multi-strength rocks

Keywords:complex-structural deposit, rocks of different strength, strong interlayer, cylindrical charge, spherical charge, initiation, physical modeling, stress field, method

The effect of cylindrical and spherical charges of explosives in multi-strength arrays consisting of soft rocks and strong interlayers is investigated, which allows to establish a zone of compaction of soft rocks located between strong inclusions. A method of explosive destruction of an array of heterogeneous rocks has been developed, which allows controlling the energy of an explosion by counter-initiation using intermediate detonators installed on the upper and lower boundaries of each interlayer. A method of explosive destruction of an array using slits and placement of shaped charges in them has been developed, providing high-quality crushing of multi-strength rocks represented by strong inclusions located in the upper part of the ledge in the zone of uncontrolled crushing.

Bibliographic list:
  1. The mechanical effect of an explosion in soils / Luchko I.A., Plaksiy V.A., Remez N.S., etc.; Ed. Luchko I.A. - Kiev: Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Institute of Geophysics named after S.I. Subbotin, 1989. – 232 p.
  2. Lyakhov G.M. Fundamentals of explosion dynamics in soils and liquid media. - M.: Nedra, 1964– - 216 p.
  3. Yumatov B.P., Baykov V.N., Smirnov V.P. Open development of complex-structured deposits of non-ferrous metals. - M.: Nedra, 1973. - 227 p.
  4. The effect of an explosion in soils and rocks. // Materials of the All-Union. scientific conference - Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1982. - 284 p.
  5. Kravets V.G., Luchko A.V., Mikhalyuk A.V. The use of explosion energy in reclamation construction. - M.: Nedra, 1987. -208 p.
UDC 622.235
Naimova R.Sh. – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Mining Department,
Juraev S.D. - doctoral student of the department "Mining"
(Tashkent State Technical University named after Islam Karimov, Uzbekistan, Tashkent)

Recommendations for determining the parameters of blasting in the lower horizons of complex deposits

Keywords:quarry, rock, mountain massif, ledge, explosive, rock mass, resistance line along the sole, rock fortress, well grid, specific explosive consumption, charge, well diameter, charging

In the article, using the example of the deep quarries of Muruntau and Kalmakir, a technique adapted to complex-structured deposits is selected and recommendations are presented for calculating the parameters of borehole charges, allowing to get a complete picture of the conditions for conducting blasting operations at depth, and their spatial placement, qualitative and quantitative indicators of explosive loosening of the mountain massif. The results of calculations will allow to obtain the desired effect and optimize the parameters of technological processes of mining production.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Kuchersky N.I. Modern technologies in the development of primary gold deposits. - Moscow: "Ore and metals", 2007. - 696 p.
  2. Umarov F.Ya., Nasyrov U.F. Technique of experimental studies of deformations of abutment rock mass under the action of the energy of a mass explosion. T.: Tashkent State Technical University, 2016, - 16 p.
  3. Mosinets V.N. Crushing and seismic action of an explosion in rocks. M.: Nedra, 1976. - 271 p.
  4. F.A. Avdeev, V.L. Baron, N.V. Gurov et al. Regulatory reference book on drilling and blasting / - M.: Nedra, 1986. - 511 p. (where the effective length of the charge is above the sole).
  5. B.N.Kutuzov, V.M.Skorobogatov, I.E.Erofeev et al. Handbook of explosives // - M.: Nedra, 1988. 511 p.
  6. Cook M.A. The science of industrial explosives. Per. from English. – M.: Nedra, 1980. 453 p.
  7. Tangaev I.A. Energy intensity of mining and processing processes. - M.: Nedra, 1986. - 231s.
  8. Norov Yu.D. The action of the explosion of trench charges ejected in soils. - Monograph. Tashkent FAN, 2005. - 178s.
  9. Bibik I.P. "Selection and justification of the parameters of drilling and blasting processes to improve the efficiency of mining and transport equipment of deep open pits" Diss. for the degree of Cand. tech. Sciences. 2003

Section 3. Ecology and safety during blasting operations
UDC 622.235; 622.8
V.I. Kulikov, Leading researcher, Candidate of phys.-math. Sciences,
Z.Z. Sharafiev, junior researcher
(Institute of Geospheres Dynamics RAS (IDS RAS), Moscow, Russia)

Seismic action of underground mining explosions on population and construction of the city of the mine region

Keywords:accelerograms, velosigrams, spectrum, hypocentral distance, epicentral distance, SDD, optimal deceleration, deceleration stage, intensity of oscillations, seismic score

The paper presents the results of seismic monitoring of mass explosions at the Gubkin mine. The dependence of the maximum oscillation velocity on the reduced hypocentral distance is obtained. For each mass explosions was determined the intensity of the seismic effect of the explosion on the construction of the city of Gubkin and its population was determined. For one of the explosion an isoseist map is shown, demonstrating the seismic impact on the region. According to the seismic monitoring of the technological explosion of one well, numerical experiments were carried out to determine the optimal deceleration for SDD. The dependence of the intensity of vibrations from the mass explosives in the deceleration stage (well) and on the number of wells is determined.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Tseytlin YA.I., Smoliy N.I. Seysmicheskiye i udarnyye vozdushnyye volny promyshlennykh vzryvov. M.: Nedra, 1981, 191 s.
  2. Medvedev S.V. Seysmika gornykh vzryvov. - M .: Nedra, 1964. – 188 s.
  3. Karty obshchego seysmicheskogo rayonirovaniya OSR-2015. SNiP II – 7–81. Stroitel'stvo v seysmicheskikh rayonakh. SP 14.13330.2014. izd. Ministerstvo stroitel'stva i zhilishchno-kommunal'nogo khozyaystva RF. Moskva, 2016, 31 s.
  4. V.N. Kostyuchenko, S.V. Kondrat'yev, G.G. Kocharyan. O parametrakh seysmicheskikh voln pri korotkozamedlennykh vzryvakh. FTPRPI. 1982. № 1. str.33-41.
  5. A.I.Goncharov, V.I.Kulikov, N.M.Martinson. O seysmicheskom deystvii massovykh vzryvov na kar'yerakh KMA. Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten'. 2002. №1.
UDC 622.2:614.83(075.8)
V.N. Tyupin, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
(Belgorod State National Research University (NRU BelSU), Belgorod, Russia)

Geometric parameters of the seismic focus zone during mass explosions in quarries

Keywords:deformation waves, short-time explosion rate, cumulative effect, seismic center of mass explo-sion, collision of separate parts, geometric parameters, duration of action of seismic-explosive waves, mass oscillation rate

According to the literature data, the seismic energy, which means the oscillation rate and duration of the signal are proportional to the volume of the seismic center. The purpose of the article is to determine the geometric parameters of the seismic focus (the zone of cumulative action of deformation waves) during mass explosions in quarries. A mechanism for the occurrence of the cumulative effect in the deformation of a fractured rock mass from the CRV of groups of charges is proposed. Mathematical formulas are obtained for calculating the distance from the extreme wells to the boundaries of the cumulation zone – the center of seismic waves. the analysis of experimental data indicates that the pulse duration increases by 2 times in comparison with the calculated one when the groups of explosive charges are moving in the direction of the seismic equipment. this confirms the presence around the last group of explosive charges of the zone of cumulative action of deformation waves – a seismic center of mass explosion of the largest size. in a seismic center, there is a more intense collision of individuals, the duration of the seismic explosion pulse and the rate of vibrations of the array increase. reducing the size of the seismic focus (cumulative action zone) will reduce the duration of the impact of seismic waves and the rate of vibrations of the array, which is achieved primarily by increasing the deceleration interval and choosing the direction of the cv of groups of explosive charges relative to the protected object.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Sadovsky M. A. Seismics of explosions and seismology // Izv. of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Physics of the earth. 1987. No.11. pp. 34-42.
  2. Mosinets V. N. Crushing and seismic effect of explosion in rocks. - M.: Nedra, 1976. 270 p.
  3. Adushkin V. V., Spivak A. A. Underground explosions. - M.: Nauka. 2007. 579 p.
  4. Kutuzov B. N. Safety of blasting operations in mining and industry: textbook. - M.: Publishing house "Mining Book", Publishing House of Moscow State University. 2009. 670 p.
  5. Sovmen V. K., Kutuzov B. N., Maryasov A. L. et al. Seismic safety during blasting operations. - M.: Publishing house "Mining Book". 2002. 228 p.
  6. Zeitlin Ya. I., Smoliy N. I. Seismic and shock air waves of industrial explosions. - M.: Nedra. 1981. 192 p.
  7. Segarra P., Sanchidrián J. A., Castedo R., López L. M., Del Castillo I. Performance of some coupling methods for blast vibration monitoring // Journal of Applied Geophysics, 2015, Vol. 112, pp. 129—135.
  8. Kumar R., Choudhury D., Bhargava K. Determination of blast-induced ground vibration equations for rocks us-ing mechanical and geological properties // Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2016, vol. 8, no 3, pp. 341—349. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.10.009.
  9. Gui Y. L., Zhao Z. Y., Jayasinghe L. B., Zhou H. Y., Goh A. T. C., Tao M. Blast wave induced spatial variation of ground vibration considering field geological conditions // International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2018, vol. 101, pp. 63—68. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2017.11.016.
  10. Li J. C., Li N. N., Chai S. B., Li H. B. Analytical study of ground motion caused by seismic wave propagation across faulted rock masses // International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics. 2017, vol. 42, no 1, pp. 95—109. DOI: 10.1002/nag.2716.
  11. Adushkin V. V., Anisimov V. N. Geomechanical and geoecological safety and ways of its implementation in the KMA region // In sb. Problems of nature management and the ecological situation in European Russia and adjacent territories: Materials of the VII International Scientific Conference (in memory of Prof. Petina A.N.) October 24-26, 2017 - Belgorod: Publishing house "POLYTERRA". 2017. pp. 13-20.
  12. Kocharyan G. G., Kishkina S. B. New approaches to ensuring seismic safety of mining operations // In Sat . Problems of nature management and the ecological situation in European Russia and adjacent territories: Materials of the VII International Scientific Conference (in memory of Prof. Petina A.N.) October 24-26, 2017 - Belgorod: Publishing House "POLYTERRA". 2017. pp. 342-348.
  13. Belin V. A., Kholodilov A. N., Gospodarikov A. P. Methodological foundations of forecasting the seismic action of mass explosions // Mining Journal. 2017. No.2. pp. 66-68.
  14. Tyupin V. N., Khaustov V. V. Dependence of the geomechanical state of a fractured massif on the deceleration interval in the zone of seismic action of mass explosions// Mining information and Analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). 2021. No.2. pp. 45-54. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2021-2-0-45-54.
  15. Tyupin V. N. Duration of the impact of seismic waves on protected objects during mass explosions at quarries// Mining information and Analytical Bulletin (scientific and technical journal). 2021. No. 4. pp. 124-133. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2021-4-0-124.
  16. Tkachuk K. M., Tkachev S. I. Investigation of the action of the explosion of a column charge using high-speed filming - Ed. universities. Mining Journal. 1966. No. 4. pp. 73-76.
  17. Tyupin V. N. Determination of parameters of vibrodynamic (seismic) impact of rolling stock on surrounding buildings and structures// Modern technologies. System analysis. Modeling.- IrGUPS,2013.-№2(38).- Pp.99-103.
  18. Ignatenko I. M., Yanitsky E. B., Dunaev V. A., Kabelko S. G. Fracturing of the rock mass in the quarry of the mine "Zhelezny" JSC "Kovdorsky GOK" //Mining Journal. 2019. No. 10. P. 11-15. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2019.10.01.
  19. Ignatenko I. M., Godovnikov N. A., Dunaev V. A. Methods of forecasting-deformation model edge zone a career in hard rock masses // Mining informational and analytical Bulletin (scientific and technical journal). 2018. No. S1. pp. 72-78.
  20. Tyupin V. N. Geomechanical behavior of jointed rock mass in the large-scale blast impact zone// Eurasian Mining. 2020.№2. Pp. 11-14. DOI: 10.17580/em.2020.02.03.

Section 4. Information
To the 65th anniversary of Alexander Arturovich Dobrynin155-157

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