"Explosion technology"— scientific and technical journal

Journal was founded in 1922 by a group of engineers. In Russia and the CIS "Explosion technology" is the only one peer-reviewed specialized periodical in the field of blasting.

Issue 107/64 (2012)

Theory and practice of blasting work

Brief view
 Article title Pages  
Introductory remarks by Director of JSC JSC “GosNII “Kristall” E.V. Kolganov3-4
Introductory remarks by Head of "Rustechnologia" corporation in the Nizhny Novgorod region Delegation I.N.Karyagin5-5

Section 1. Theoretical and experimental studies on the development of industrial explosives and initiation detonators
UDC 662.235
Ilyukhin V.S., Kolganov E.V., Sosnin V.A., Makogon L.V., Lobaeva L.V. (JSC “GosNII “Kristall”)
Sergeev A.G., Zhukov A.M., Zhamilova V.A. (FKP “BOZ”)
Besedin E.I. (JSC “Olzherasskoe Mine Driving Department”)

Development of permissible emulsion explosives

Keywords: Poremit PP-IV-36 cartridged permissible emulsion explosive, preliminary testing, performance in application

The paper presents the results of preliminary testing of Poremit PP-IV-36 cartridged permissible emulsion explosive in production conditions of JSC “Olzherasskoe Mine Driving Department”. It is shown that performance of rock monolith breaking down using borehole charges of Poremit PP-IV-36 is not lower than that of the Ammonite PZhV-20 charges.

UDC 662.2–39
Trofimov V.S.

About possibility of determination of fiziko-kinetic parameters of the reacting condensed medium in shock–wave experiment

Keywords: a dynamic method, experimental fields of velocity, definition chemical kinetics

Article is devoted development of the theory offered before by the author a dynamic method of an experimental research of physical and chemical transformations of substance in the conditions of non-stationary shock-wave movement of the condensed medium

UDC 662.2–39
Gan’kin Yu.A., Valeshny S.I., Stolmakov E.A., Ilyin V.P., Kolganov E.V., Sosnin V.A. Filinov A.I. (JSC “GosNII “Kristall”)

Investigation of regenerated ammonium nitrate application for production of commercial explosives**

Keywords: ammonium nitrate, hexogen, octogen, spent acid, emulsion explosives

There was investigated the production of ammonium nitrate and mixed sodium-ammonium saltpeter from spent acids of octogen and hexogen production by means of their neutralization with gaseous ammonia and simultaneous water evaporation caused by the heat of neutralization. Mixed saltpeter was produced by preliminary partial neutralization of used acid with soda (Na2CO3). Received melts had 88-94% concentration of saltpeters and were applicable for preparation of emulsion explosives.

UDC 662.235.43
Obrazcov S.A. (JSC “Kalinovsky chemical works”)

Advanced developments of commercial explosives in Kalinovsky chemical works

Keywords: commercial explosives production, emulsion explosive cartridges, ‘Yarit-M’ cartridges, granulite, grammonite, explosives without TNT, standard explosive

The paper describes Kalinovsky works advanced developments in commercial explosives production:
- emulsion explosive cartridges with small diameters (up to 32 mm);
- granulite EM-6 (without TNT);
- 21 TMZ grammonite (for under ground operations);
- making of emulsion explosives in mixing and charging trucks on sites of their application.

UDC 622.23.05
Mokeev А.А.,Soldatova А.S.,Badretdinova L.Ch, Sadikov I.F.,Маrsov А.А.

Research of physical stability of the power sated structures of chemically active element intended for processing of oil wells

Keywords: the physical stability, the power sated material, oil well, sublimation, hexachloroethane

In article results of research of physical stability of the pressed samples of chemically active element intended for thermogaschemical of processing of oil wells in a complex with punching are presented. The reasons of instability of the power sated structures are established and ways of their stabilization are resulted.

UDC 662.2-391.4
Garifullin R. SH., Borisov V. M., Моkeev А.А., Salnikov A.S.

Research of power characteristics of thermoplastic solid fuel on the basis of ammonium nitrate and powdery elastomer

Keywords: solid fuel; powdery elastomer; ammonium nitrate; burning temperature; an oil extracting intensification

High energetic combustible compositions find wide application in technologies of an intensification of oil extracting among which structures on the basis of ammonium nitrate and powdery elastomer are rather perspective. In work researches on studying of influence of structure of three-componental system ammonium nitrate – butadiene-nitril rubber – potassium bichromate on specific gas-generation are executed, temperature of burning and specific warmth of combustion and laws of influence of structure of three-componental system on the specified characteristics are revealed. The optimum maintenance of an oxidizer – the ammonium nitrate, equal 85 % is established.

UDC 662.235.5
V.A.Bragin, I.A.Os’kin, G.G. Savenkov (NII “Poisk”)
S.A. Dushenok,V.G. Kulikov,G.V. Semashkin (SDTO “Tekhnolog”)

Possibility of application of explosives with nano metallic additives in high-voltage commercial electric initiation means

Keywords: initiation means, high-voltage impulse, electric detonator, nano metallic powder, percolation

The paper describes the application of explosive compositions with nano- and micro-dimensional copper powder additives in high-voltage commercial electric initiation means (electric detonators). It is presented the possibility to reduce the values of voltage impulse fed to electrodes of a detonator.

UDC 662.3, 662.4
Toskin A.A., Savenkov G.G., Os’kin I.A., Bykov A.S. (FGUP “NII “Poisk”)

Development of primary transducers of electric energy in means of initiation

Keywords: conductor, electrical explosion, ignition of explosives

The analysis of the processes of conductors electric explosions and extension of their explosion products in electromechanical systems of initiation was carried out. The values of parameters were determined at which the electric explosions of conductors happen. The characteristics of the conductor materials evaporation and porous explosives ignition in electric means of initiation were considered. The prediction of primary transducers of electric energy development was given.

UDC 662.2-35
Pechenev Yu.G., Gorbacheva A.I., Ilyin V.P.

Unvestigation of the properties of Okfit-M composition based on recovered HMX

Keywords: explosive, grain size distribution, properties, flowability, sensitivity to mechanical effects, compressibility, charge, perforation depth

The paper presents the results of investigation OKFIT-M experimental batch based on recovered HMX.
According to the results of investigation OKFIT-M is recommended for application in shaped charges of perforators.

UDC 662.21
Gabdullin R.Kh., Akhmetov I.Z., Sosnin V.A. (JSC“GosNII “Kristall”)

Investigation of booster physical and chemical properties in charging wells with aquatol

Keywords: commercial explosives, well charging, booster, thermal resistance, mathematical simulation, temperature fields

The paper presents the results of the investigation and calculation of thermal conditions in a well (with a booster located in it) charged with commercial slurry (or emulsion) explosive.
It was determined that at initial temperatures of charged explosive up to +85…90 oC the booster was not heated higher than +71…77 oC (depending on the well diameter from 25 to 41 cm) and therefore melting of TNT booster and probability of its spontaneous heating in such temperature and time conditions was practically impossible.


Section 2. State and prospects of industrial production of explosives and initiation detonators
UDC 662.1/.4
Sosnin V.A. (JSC“GosNII “Kristall”)

World trends in the development of commercial explosives

Keywords: commercial explosives, volume of production and consumption, AN-FO mixture, emulsion explosives, range of products

The paper presents the trends of world market of commercial explosives development, as well as in Europe and Russia, on the base of data of RF Rostechnadzor, international company Global Analytic Association, Inc. (GIA), USA, Europe and Asia, and U.S. Geological Service (USGS). The main types of commercial explosives applied in Russia, their physical and chemical and explosive characteristics in comparison with foreign analogs are presented.

UDC 622.235.432.3
M.V. Ageev,V.I. Varenitsa, V.K. Popov

State and prospects of application of commercial initiation means

Keywords: electric blasting, non-electric blasting system, domestic initia-tion means, electric detonators, detonating cords, initiating devices, radio blasting

The paper presents the processes of blasting operations widely used in home practice and appropriate initiation means for metal mining and oil industry. Short review of differences between domestic and world markets is given and advanced trends of initiation means development are validated.

UDC 662.235
Ilyukhin V.C., Smyshlyaeva N.A. (JSC “GosNII “Kristall”)
Tarasov V.A., Kudryashov V.G. (JSC “Promsintez”)
Lokotilov N.O., Sukhorukov I.A. (GOP JSC “Magnezit”)

Cartridged emulsion explosive composition for blasting operations in underground mining

Keywords: Granemit P-II-36 cartridged emulsion explosive, preliminary testing, performance in application, volume of toxic gases in explosion products

The paper presents the results of preliminary testing of Granemit P-II-36 cartridged emulsion explosive in GOP JSC “Magnezit” production conditions.
It is shown that in breakage and dead-end headings the performance of Granemit is equal to that of Ammonit 6ZhV-200 and the explosion products have significantly lower (~10 times) content of nitrogen oxides.

UDC 622.235
Morozov K.E., Korunov V.N. Filinov A.I., Kolyashova S.V. (JSC “GosNII “Kristall”)

Development of modern production lines for commercial emulsion explosives used in mining enterprises

Keywords: modern production lines, quality, safety

The paper describes main approaches for development of modern production lines to manufacture emulsion explosives. The advantages of the production line are shown in providing of minimal cost, high productivity, reduction of hand work, automation of production process to provide the yield of qualitative emulsion explosive and safety of the production process. The comparison with production lines of other producers is made.

UDC 662.235
Korunov V.N., Morozov K.E., Filinov A.I. (JSC “GosNII “Kristall”)

Experience in operation of production units and application of emulsion explosives developed in “GosNII “Kristall”

Keywords: semi-finished products, Granemit, Poremit, Poremit emulsion

The paper describes the experience in operation of production units for manufacture of semi-finished products for emulsion explosives and in application of emulsion explosives developed in Kristall in different mining and geological conditions. The analysis and approaches to improve production process and equipment for manufacture of semi-finished products for emulsion explosives are presented.

UDC 622.1/.4
Kovtun Y.V. (Plekhanov State Mining Institute. Saint-Petersburg)

Detonating cords of high effects and statting to agressing mediums

Keywords: ammonium nitrate explosives, oxidizer, fuel, ANFO, explosive characteristics, mixing of ingredients

The paper presents the information on the problems connected with quality of explosives produced in site of their application. The paper is based on the translation of the information from Instruction on Application of ANFO (Sweden). The information is analyzed, interpreted and compared with Russian igdanits and granulits. The necessary requirements for ingredients and equipment for mixing are presented that promote production of qualitative explosives. The information is of interest for miners using explosives of own production and for manufacturers of ammonium nitrate.


Section 3. Blasting operations technology. safety and ecology
UDC 622.235
Victorov S.D., Zakalinskiy V.M.

Explosive destruction of rock massifs in Russia

Keywords: explosive, the means of initiation, the structure of the rock, the scale of breaking, the concentrated charges, trinitrotoluol, non-explosive components, granulated explosives

In the article the promising trends are examined and is represented the comprehensive picture of the strategic development of blasting under the mineral deposits exploitation in Russia.

UDC 622.213.42
Timofeev I.N., Gulenkov E.V. (JSC “Polyus”)

Practice of emulsion explosive application in JSC “Polyus”

Keywords: industrial explosives, emulsion explosives, mixpumptruck (mixing and charging truck)

The paper presents the results of blasting operations optimization in the establishment of JSC “Polyus” in the time of transition to the application of emulsion explosives.

UDC 662.1/.4
Karachev A.G., Ilyin B.P., Kozhevnikov V.G., Mikhailyukova A.I., Khvorov F.T. (JSC “GosNII “Kristall”)

Approaches for assessment of safe operation and detonation characteristics of commercial explosives

Keywords: commercial explosives, methods of testing, sensitivity to mechanical effects, detonation transfer, transport safety of explosives, permissibility

The paper describes methods of commercial explosives characteristics testing. In development of new commercial explosives the levels of safety and operational characteristics are assessed by the methods reproducing exposure of explosives to different effects. The tests include the complex of methods for assessment of thermal resistance in conditions of operation with explosives, sensitivity to mechanical effects and detonation, the class of commercial explosives permissibility. The results of the tests determine the levels of safety and operational characteristics as well as detonation characteristics of commercial explosives.

UDC 622.235.2
Simonov P.S.

Definition of ability of explosives to smoking at blast

Keywords: blast, explosive, detonation, smoke, solid matter

In article the reasons of formation of a smoke at blast are considered. The methods of an estimation of ability of explosives to smoking is offered. Examples of calculation of concentration of solid particles in products of blast for individual and constituent explosives are presented.

UDC 622.235(571.56)
Bondarenko I.F., Khon V.I., Nikitin R.Y. (“Yakutniproalmaz” Institute “ALROSA” OJSC)

Specific features of emulsion explosives application in conditions of kimberlite open pits of “Alrosa” OJSC

Keywords: emulsion explosives, detonation wave, damageability and integrity of diamond crystals

The article considers issues about specific features of emulsion explosives application in conditions of kimberlite open pits of “ALROSA” OJSC, results of experimental works on selection and perfection of drilling-and-blasting parameters, aimed at improvement of open pits’ operation indications owing to achieving more even breakage of kimberlites and decreasing the level of anthropogenic diamond destruction, as well as investigation of massif specific features’ influence on explosive characteristics and explosive properties of emulsion explosives.

UDC 614.839.5
Taubkin I.S. (Federal centre of judicial examination at Ministry of Justice of Russia)

About lacks of a regulation of explosion safety of manufactures explosives of industrial assignment

Keywords: explosives of industrial purpose; manufacture; buildings; premises; productions; category; classification of zones; explosion safety

The critical analysis "Rules for the Construction and Safe Operation of items of manufacture and the mechanized preparation for application of explosives in the organizations conducting explosive works" is given.

UDC 622.235.222
Kushnerov P.I., Panchishin O.V., Panchishin V.Ja.

The methods of evaluating the effectiveness of explosives

Keywords: method, tester, trials, effectiveness, cardboard, aluminum, granular explosives, emulsion explosives, charges, wells

In the paper we show test results obtained using the method of determining the effectiveness of explosives on the tester in combination with the standard test method for brisance (Hess test). The method allows to determine the effects of granular, slurry, cast and other explosives intended for the loading wells and which have up to 120 mm critical diameter of the denotation while blasting coated sand.

UDC 622.235
Kazakov N.N., Tsukerman A.I.

Computer division into districts of a career field on explosibility of rocks

Keywords: classification, division into districts, explosibility, is glad, rock, the specific expense

In given article the information on the developed computer method of operative division into districts of a career field on explosibility of ores and rocks taking into account a piece of breed demanded the sizes and types of applied explosives at the mountain enterprise is stated.

UDC 662.1/.4, 351.82
Kolganov E.V., Ilyin V.P., Tarakanov A.I. (JSC “GosNII “Kristall”)
Varenyh N.V. (SRI of Applied Chemistry)

Prospects of legal system changing in the field of explosives

Keywords: explosive substances, technical regulations of Customs Union, project of law, obligatory certification, marking, information system

In 2010–2011 two basic legal documents are being developed which control the activity in the field of explosives turn-round: a project of technical regulations “On Safety of Explosives and Items on their Base” of the states-members of Customs Union – Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia and a project of federal law “On the Turn-round of Explosive Substances and Materials, Pyrotechnical Articles of Technical Purpose”.
It is foreseen the obligatory confirmation of explosives and articles on their base conformity with the requirements of technical regulations in the form of certification as well as marking of explosives with special substances and microforms with information providing detection of explosives, determination of their producers and turn-round partners.

UDC 622.235
Dzhigrin A.V., Gorlov A.Y.,Gorlov Y.V.

Study of coal seam fracture by pneumatic power cartridges

Keywords: softening, degassing, coal seam, air-pulse cartridge

The paper presents results of studies of coal seam fracture by pneumatic cartridges, as well as power of pneumatic cartridges with different diameters is determined.

UDC 622.813:622.817:541.124.7
Sargsyan G.N. (Institute of Chemical physics by name of A.B.Nalbandjana NAS Republic of Armenia)

Investigation of pulsations phenomena at chain gas-phase reactions of oxidation of organic compounds

Keywords: pulsation intensification with light-emission, singlet excited oxygen

Results research of pulsation of light-emission in conditions of reactor of full mixing in flow of propane + air is resulted.
By registration of radiation of a reaction medium are found out pulsations of light-emission owing to mixing at continuous increase of pressure of a reaction medium.
Mathematical modeling of the phenomenon is carried out by considering a set of responsible reactions and calculation. It is received, that a series of responsible reactions can lead to occurrence pulsations of light-emission of a reactionary mixture. For source of radiations in infra-red are considering the singlet excited molecules of oxygen.

UDC 622.235.535.2
Tulebaev K.K.

Destruction of free surface area rock under the influence of seismic waves

Keywords: the destruction of the array, the strength properties of rocks, the dynamic stress, seismic waves, blasting work

The research resulted in the dependence of the power of the weakened area of the rock mass on physical and mechanical rock properties and dynamic parameters of seismic waves.


Section 4. Information events
The results of V interdisciplinary scientific-technical conference "Industrial explosives: status and prospects of development and application"296-301
The results of the Scientific Council of RAS meeting on the Problems of national economic usage of explosions302-302
Viktorov S.D., Zakalinskiy V.M., Shlyapin A.V.
International Scientific Conference "Physical problems of rock destruction"
On the 20th anniversary of the JSC "Vzryvispytaniya" formation306-308
New opportunities for the packaging of industrial explosives

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