"Explosion technology"— scientific and technical journal

Journal was founded in 1922 by a group of engineers. In Russia and the CIS "Explosion technology" is the only one peer-reviewed specialized periodical in the field of blasting.

Issue 133/90 (2021)

Theory and practice of blasting work

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UDC 622.235
V.A. Belin, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, President,
M.N. Vyatkin, technical director,
Yu.N. Bolotova, engineer, executive director,
V.S. Chaban, employee
(ANO «National Organization of Explosive Engineers», Moscow, Russia)
E.A. Umrikhin, Chief Specialist
(JSC «Mikhailovsky GOK»)

Results of the XXI International conference of ANO «National organization of explosive engineers». New technologies of explosive business in the service of mining enterprises of Russia

Keywords:conference, explosive works, explosive materials, scientific and technical information, boring equipment, digital technologies, industrial safety, remote methods of monitoring, design, emulsion matrix, ammonium nitrate

The main results of research and production conference on mountain and explosive business are presented in article. A main objective of carrying out conference was discussion of a wide range of questions of carrying out mining and explosive operations, an exchange of scientific and technical information, definition of the perspective directions of creation and development of new equipment and technologies, development of joint scientific programs, establishment of business contacts between experts of a mountain profile and participants of a turn of explosive materials of industrial function of Russia and foreign countries. More than 240 representatives of 103 ministries, departments, the organizations and the enterprises representing all industries have taken part in work of conference, basic of which: iron ore, coal, nonferrous metallurgy, cement and diamond-mining, precious metals, chemical and fertilizers, construction. Among participants there were leading scientists and experts academic and research institutes, the expert and certified centers, and also the organizations and the enterprises of machine-building branches in the field of creation of plants on production of explosive materials.


Section 1. State and improvement of explosives, devices and blasting agents
UDC 622.235.3
S. D. Viktorov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Prof., Head. the ICEMR department,
S.A. Gorinov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Leading Researcher
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)
I.Yu. Maslov, Ph.D., Ch. Engineer
(Global Mining Explosive Russia LLC)

Estimation of the duration of safe heating of the aluminum turn on in an ammonium-nitrene explosive

Keywords:ammonium nitrate explosives, sulfide ores, heating temperature of the interaction center of ore and ammonium nitrate explosives, pressure in the interaction center

A method is proposed for assessing the permissible time spent by ASVV in blast holes in a sulphide massif during the formation of local heating foci.The results obtained make it possible to reasonably form the direction of further research, both to ensure the safety of blasting operations and to develop safe technologies for blasting pyrite ores using ammonium nitrate explosives.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Kalganov E.V. Emulsion industrial substances. – 1st book (Compositions and properties) / E.V. Kalganov, V.A. Sosnin. – Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod region: Publishing house of the State Research Institute "Crystal". – 2009. – 592 p.
  2. Katyshev S.F. Modeling the behavior of ammonium nitrate in charging wells / S.F. Katyshev, V.N. The ten's manager, L.M. Teslyuk // Fire and explosion safety of substances and materials. – 2012. – No. 7. – S. 29-34.
  3. Katyshev S.F. Determination of conditions for the safe use of ammonium nitrate explosives at sulfide deposits / S.F. Katyshev, V.N. The ten's manager, L.M. Teslyuk // Fire and explosion safety. – 2009. – T. 18. – No. 2. – S. 24-28.
  4. Katyshev S.F. Determination of conditions for the safe use of ammonium nitrate explosives at sulfide deposits / S.F. Katyshev, V.N. The ten's manager, L.M. Teslyuk // Fire and explosion safety. – 2012. – T. 21. – No. 5. – S. 42-44.
  5. Katyshev S.F. Determination of conditions for the safe use of ammonium nitrate explosives at sulfide deposits / S.F. Katyshev, V.N. The ten's manager, L.M. Teslyuk // Fire and explosion safety. – 2010. – T. 1. – No. 5. – S. 54-57.
  6. Kuprin V.P. On the possibility of using water-filled ammonium nitrate explosives for the destruction of sulfide ores / V.P. Kuprin, I. L. Kovalenko // Mining information analytical bulletin. – 2010. – No. 8. – P. 131-136.
  7. Petrov E.A. Influence of urea on thermal stability of ammonium nitrate explosives in sulfide environments / E.A. Petrov, P.I. Savin // Bulletin of the scientific center for work safety in the coal industry. – 2014. – No. 1. – P.158-161.
  8. Petrov E.A. Investigation of the influence of the concentration of inhibiting additives on the chemical resistance of emulsion explosives in the pyrite environment. Petrov, N.P. Vdovin, P.I. Savin // Bulletin of the scientific center for work safety in the coal industry. – 2014. – No. 1. – P.158-161.
  9. Gorinov S.A. Physico-mathematical model of heating a sulfide-containing inclusion in ammonium nitrate explosive / Gorinov S.A., MaslovI.Yu.// Mining information and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). – 2017. – No. S33. – S. 3-12.
  10. Gorinov S.A. Accounting for the structure of pyrite ores when assessing the safe conduct of blasting operations / Gorinov S.A., MaslovI.Yu. – Technology and safety of blasting operations. Materials of research and production seminars on blasting operations – 2018. – Yekaterinburg: LLC Universal Printing House «Alfa Print», 2019. – pp. 73-78.
  11. MaslovI.Yu. Study of the internal structure of pyrite ores for assessing the safety of explosive use based on ammonium nitrate / I.Yu. Maslov // Explosive business. – 2019. – No. 122/79. – S. 136-142.
  12. MaslovI.Yu. Questions of experimental substantiation of the safe use of ammonium nitrate explosives in sulfide-containing rocks / I.Yu. Maslov, S.A. Gorinov // Explosive business. – 2020. – No. 126/83. – S. 68-84.
  13. Chudnovsky A.F.Thermophysical characteristics of dispersed materials / A.F. Chudnovsky – Moscow: Fizmatgiz, 1962. – 456 p.
  14. Esin O.A., Geld P.V. Physical chemistry of pyrometallurgical processes. Part 1. Reactions between gaseous and solid bodies / О.А. Esin, P.V. Geld – Sverdlovsk-Moscow: Gosnauchtekhizdat literature on black. and color. metallurgy, 1950. – 510 p.
  15. Varma Mohan. Pressure dependence of thermal decom¬position of ammonium nitrate oxidizer / Varma Mohan, M. Pandey, B. L. Gupta // Journal Indian Chemistry Society. – 2003. – No. 5 (80). – P. 569-574.
  16. Sarner S. Chemistry of rocket fuels / S. Sarner. – M.: Mir, 1969. – 488 p.
  17. Kukin P.P. Theory of combustion and explosion / P.P. Kukin, V.V. Yushin, S.G. Emelyanov and others – M.: Yurayt, 2014. – 435 p.
  18. Kakovsky I.A. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrometallurgical processes / I.A. Kakovsky, S.S. Naboichenko. – Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1986. – 272 p.
  19. Sobolev A.E. Kinetics of dissolution of pyrite and sphalerite in the presence of oxidizing agents: Diss. ... Cand. chem. Sciences: 02.00.04, 02.00.01 / Sobolev Alexander Evgenievich. – Tver. – 2004. – 280 p.
UDC 622.235.3
S.S. Kostylev, head,
I.G. Chernogor, employee
(GC «Nitro-Technology»)
R.A. Rakhmanov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, researcher
(Academician N.V. Melnikov Institute of Problems of Integrated Development of Mineral Resources of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Ways to improve the explosive characteristics of ammonium nitrate in the production of mixed explosives

Keywords:ammonium nitrate, granular ammonium nitrate, industrial explosives, specific surface area, granulometric composition, modular production point of mixed explosives, device for regulating granulometric composition

The article discusses various ways to increase the sensitivity of explosives based on ammonium nitrate. At the moment, new ways are being sought to improve the characteristics of explosives on the basis of the widespread dense ammonia salt GOST 2-2013. A simple method of preparing explosives based on it is proposed. It is shown that the characteristics of saltpeter and explosives are similar to those produced at present. The scheme of the device for regulating the granulometric composition of ammonium nitrate is given, the mechanism of its operation is analyzed in detail, possible options for installing the device in various industrial devices for the production of mixed explosives are given. The comparison of the granulometric composition of saltpeter passed through the device at a given perforation of the basket with other types of ammonium nitrate was carried out. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated.

Bibliographic list:
  1. GOST 2-2013 Ammonium nitrate. Technical conditions
  2. Berezina K.V., Mezheritsky S.E., Sosnin V.A., Zimin A.S., Grachev A.S. Comparative laboratory tests of porous ammonium nitrate // Bulletin of Kazan Technological University. 2016. No.19. pp. 43-47.
  3. Galushko F.I., Kotlyarov A.A. Porous saltpeter of the company «Eurochem» // Pre-existing industry. 2019. No. 2. pp. 166-168.
  4. Mikhailov Yu.M., Kolganov E.V., Sosnin V.A. Safety of ammonium nitrate and its use in industrial explosives. – Dzerzhinsk: Partner-plus, 2008. – 298 p.
  5. Kostylev S.S. Method of manufacturing explosives based on crushed ammonium nitrate. Patent No. 2735073 C1 Russian Federation, 2020.
  6. TU 2143-073-05761643-2013 Ammonium nitrate porous. Technical conditions
UDC 551.663
A.V. Dubovik, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, leading researcher
(N.N. Semenov Federal Research Center for Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences)

Modelling oftest method forsensitivity of solid explosives to mechanical stress – destroying shell

Keywords:destruction, initiation, explosion, sensitivity, explosives, impact

A theoretical analysis of the original test method for determining the level of sensitivity of solid explosives to mechanical stress, which was named the Destructive Shell (DS), was carried out. It belongs to the number of non-impact test methods, when an explosive charge compressed to high pressure is suddenly released from it and freely scattered around. It is argued that in the process of high-speed movement, fragments of destruction are compressed by the parts of the test device with simultaneous physical and mechanical interaction with them, as well as with each other through heat exchange contacts and chemical reactions. The situation is generally similar to that which arises in the process of destruction of an explosive charge upon mechanical impact. Therefore, to analyze the DS method, the mathematical procedure for calculating the parameters of flows and temperatures of dissipative heating of the destroyed charge substance, previously developed for calculating an explosion upon impact, was used. The data obtained made it possible to clarify the formulations of the two main mechanisms of initiation of solid explosives by the DS method – viscous-plastic and frictional heating.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Shchetinin V. G. 1999. Otsenka mekhanicheskoi chuvstvitelnosti tverdykh vzryvchatykh veshchestv po metodu razrushaiushcheisia obolochki [Estimation of the mechanical sensitivity of solid explosives by the disintegrating-shellbmethod]. Combust. Exp. Shock Waves 35(5): 570-575.
  2. Teselkin V. A. 2008. Vliianie razmera chastits komponentov na mekhanicheskuiu chuvstvitelnost metallizirovannykh vzryvchatykh veshchestv [Effect of particle size of the components on the mechanical sensitivity of metallized explosives]. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. B 2(5): 609-616.
  3. Afanasiev G.T., Bobolev V.K. 1968. Initsiirovanie tverdykh vzryvchatykh veshchestv udarom. Nauka, Moscow. 178 p. [Initiation of Solid Explosives by Impact. Nauka, 1971. 178 p].
  4. Dubovik A.V. 2011. Chuvstvitelnost tverdykh vzryvchatykh sistem k udaru [Sensitivity of solid explosives systems to impact]. Moscow: Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology Publ. 276 p.
  5. Amosov A.P. 2011. [Thermophysical models of friction of inert and explosive materials Teplofizicheskie modeli treniia inertnykh i vzryvchatykh materialov]. Moscow: Mashinostroenie. 364 p.
  6. Bowden F.P, Ioffe A.D. 1952. Initiation and growth of explosion in solids and liquids. At the Cambridge University Press . 120 p.
  7. Makhov M. N. 2021. Prognozirovanie metatelnoi sposobnosti smesei vzryvchatykh veshchestv s gidridomaliuminiia [Prediction of the acceleration ability of explosivemixtures with aluminum hydride]. Gorenje i vzryv [Combustion and Explosion]. V. 14, No. 1. 83-86.
  8. Dubovik A.V., Panafidin R. V.2018. Chuvstvitelnost k udaru smesei oktogena s oksidomzheleza [Sensitivity to impact of mixtures of octogen with iron oxide]. Gorenieivzryv [Combustion and explosion]. V. 11, No. 4. 68-73.
UDC 004.94, 539.3
A.R. Mukhutdinov, Professor of the Department «Technology of solid chemicals», Dr. tech. Sciences,
M.G. Efimov, assistant of the Department «Technology of solid chemicals»,
R.Sh. Garifullin, associate Professor of the Department «Technology of solid chemicals», Cand. tekhn. Sciences
(Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Kazan National Research Technological University» – FGBOU VO «KNITU», Kazan, Russia)
Z.R. Vakhidova, Associate Professor of the Department of Mathematics, Cand. tekhn. Sciences
(University of Management «TISBI»)

Study of stress distribution when pressing powerful materials in the assemblyof the press tool in autodesk inventor

Keywords:computer simulation, numerical solution, computational experiment, powerful materials, press-tool, Autodesk Inventor

This article presents a computer study of the stress distribution during the pressing of energy-saturated materials in the assembly of a press tool using a modern software package Autodesk Inventor. Stress distributions during the pressing of a high-power high explosive in the assembly of a press tool using a modern Autodesk Inventor software package have been determined and studied. A computer study of the stress distribution during the pressing of energy-saturated materials in the assembly of the press tool was carried out. The analysis showed that the use of CAD makes it possible to improve the quality of design, reduce the design time and the number of engineering and technical workers engaged in design and construction. Numerical simulations and virtual inspections will not be able to completely replace real prototypes and tests, but they dramatically reduce the number of manufactured samples, which reduces material costs.

Bibliographic list:
  1. RF patent No. 19942084809/18, 09.12.1994.
  2. Dementyeva D.I., Kononov I.S., Mamashev R.G., Kharitonov V.A. Introduction to the technology of energy-saturated materials: textbook (Vvedenie v tekhnologiyu energonasyshchennyh materialov: uchebnoe posobie). – Biysk: Publishing house Alt. state tech. University, 2009. – 254 p.
  3. Benin D.M. Review of computer-aided design tools (Obzor sredstv avtomatizirovannogo proektirovaniya) FEN-Science, 2015. No. 5. – P.17-19.
  4. Baeker M. Support for modeling the work of enterprises in the aerospace and defense industries (Podderzhka modelirovaniya raboty predpriyatij aviacionno-kosmicheskoj i oboronnoj otraslej). CAD and graphics, 2014. No. 10. – Р. 84-86.
  5. Mukhutdinov A.R., Yanichev S.A. Basics of using Autodesk Inventor for solving design and modeling problems: textbook (Osnovy primeneniya Autodesk Inventor dlya resheniya zadach proektirovaniya i modelirovaniya : uchebnoe posobie) – Kazan: Publishing house of KNITU, 2016. – 140 p.
  6. Gorst A.G. Gunpowder and explosives. 3rd ed., Revised (Poroha i vzryvchatye veshchestva. 3-e izd., pererabotannoe) – M.: Mechanical engineering. 1972. – 208 p.
  7. Loginov Yu.N., Inatovich Yu.V. Tool for pressing metals: a tutorial. 2nd ed., Revised and supplemented (Instrument dlya pressovaniya metallov: uchebnoe posobie. 2-e izd., ispravlennoe i dopolnennoe) – Yekaterinburg: Ural Publishing House. University, 2014. – 224 p.
UDC 004.94, 539.3
A.R. Mukhutdinov, Professor of the Department «Technology of solid chemicals», Dr. tech. Sciences,
M.G. Efimov, assistant of the Department «Technology of solid chemicals»,
R.Sh. Garifullin, associate Professor of the Department «Technology of solid chemicals», Cand. tekhn. Sciences,
V.N. Aleksandrov, senior lecturer of the Department «Technology of solid chemicals»
(Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Kazan National Research Technological University» – FGBOU VO «KNITU», Kazan, Russia)

Computer simulation of charge cumulation process with segment faces in ansys autodyn

Keywords:computer simulation, numerical solution, cumulation, segment lining, explosives, ANSYS AUTODYN

In this article, using modern computer technology developed and developed a method of solving the problem of modeling the breakdown action of cumulative charges with segment cladding (aluminum and copper) with different deflections of the cladding (0.15, 0.30 and 0.45) using computer models in the application software ANSYS AUTODYN. To illustrate the forecast values of the penetrations depths and diameters of the holes in the steel barrier. Using ANSYS AUTODYN is investigated based on the depths of the penetrations and the diameters of the holes from the deflections of the wall. With the help of the dependences of the penetration depths on the deflections of the facings, obtained on the basis of computer simulation results, it was determined that with the increase in the deflection of the facing, the breakdown ability of the cumulative charge increases linearly. The dependences of the hole diameters on the deflections of the facings obtained on the basis of computer simulation results show that the cumulative charge with a segment facing of aluminum has a larger diameter of the hole than the cumulative charge with a segment facing of copper. A comparative analysis of the obtained dependences and the results of computer simulation with full-scale experiments is carried out.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Baum F.A., Stanyukovich K.P., Shekhter B.I. Fizika vzryva (Explosion Physics). Moscow: Physics and Mathematics, 1959.469 p.
  2. Mayer V.V. Kumulyativnyj effekt: uchebnye issledovaniya (The cumulative effect: educational research). Moscow: Physics and Mathematics, 2007. 208 p.
  3. Fedorov A.I. Izuchenie kumulyativnogo effekta vzryva zaryadov so steklyannymi obolochkami (Studying the cumulative effect of an explosion of charges with glass claddings). Ph.D. Tech. Diss.,1965. 225 p.
  4. Belyaev A.F. Gorenie, detonaciya i rabota vzryva kondensirovannyh sistem (Combustion, detonation and explosion operation of condensed systems). Moscow: Science,1968. 255 p.
  5. Mukhutdinov A.R., Efimov M.G. Osnovy primeneniya ANSYS AUTODYN dlya resheniya zadach modelirovaniya bystroprotekayushchih processov (The basics of using ANSYS AUTODYN to solve the problems of modeling fast processes). Kazan:Publishing house KNRTU,2018. 244 p.
  6. Borovkov A.I. Komp'yuternyj inzhiniring: uchebnoe posobie (Computer engineering: Engineering Tutorial). SPb.: Publishing house of the Polytechnic. University, 2012. 93 p.
  7. Mekhanika deformiruemogo tverdogo tela (Mechanics of a deformable solid). [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.cadfem-cis.ru/products/ansys/simulation/structural/explicit-dynamics/ls-dyna (accessed January 25, 2020).
  8. Mukhutdinov, A.R., Vakhidova, Z.R., Efimov, M.G. Komp'yuternoe modelirovanie brizantnogo dejstviya vzryva (Computer simulation of the blasting effect of an explosion).Informacionnye tekhnologii = Information Technologies,2016. 22(5). P.340-343.
  9. Oruzhie i boepripasy (Weapons and ammunition). [Electronic resource] URL: http://weaponland.ru/publ/oktogen_vzryvchatye_veshhestva/12-1-0-1136 (accessed January 25, 2020).
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Section 2. Technology of blasting in the mining of solid minerals
UDC 622.235: 539.3
S.D. Viktorov, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Head. department,
V.M. Zakalinskii, Doctor of Technical Sciences, leading researcher
I.E. Shipovsky, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Researcher,
R.Ya. Mingazov, ved. engineer
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

The concept of development of drilling and blasting works mineral deposits

Keywords:explosion, scientific approaches, theory of explosion, field development, mathematical relationships, borehole charges, systems of differential equations, technological aspects, structure

The world experience in the use of explosion energy in mining blasting operations testifies to the trend of improving the technology of their implementation. The key point of this trend is the theoretical prerequisites for the action of the explosion and their improvement. In this article, based on the analysis of the theoretical and practical aspects of the action of the explosion, in the framework of drilling and blasting operations in the development of mineral deposits, a concept of their development is proposed. The main mathematical dependences characterizing the general approach of their application in various fields of activity are presented. Within the framework of the proposed concept, an example of computer modeling of the stress-strain state and failure of a rock massive during blasting operations is given.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Viktorov S.D. Mekhanika sdvizheniya i razrusheniya gornykh porod (Mechanics of displacement and destruction of rocks) /S.D. Viktorov, S.A. Goncharov, M.A. Iofis, V.M. Zakalinsky / Otv. ed. acad. RAS K.N. Trubetskoy; Institute of Problems of Complex Development of Subsoil. Academician N.V. Melnikov RAS. Moscow: RAS. 2019. 360 p.
  2. Fizika vzryva, monografiya, pod redaktsiey K.P. Stanyukovicha (Explosion physics, monograph, edited by K.P. Stanyukovich), ed. 2nd, rev. The main editorial office of physical and mathematical literature. Ed. «The science». 1975. 704 p.
  3. Kazakov NN. Droblenie gornykh porod vzryvom v kar'yerakh: monografiya (Crushing of rocks by explosion in open pits: monograph) / NN. Kazakov, S.D. Viktorov, A.V. Shlyapin, N.N. Lapikov. Moscow: RAS. 2020. 520 p.
  4. Kryukov GM, Glazkov Yu.V. Teoreticheskaya otsenka stepeni drobleniya gornykh porod na kar'yerakh pri raznykh sposobakh initsiirovaniya zaryadov. (Theoretical assessment of the degree of crushing of rocks in open pits with different methods of initiation of charges). Otdel'naya stat'ya Gornogo informatsionno-analiticheskogo byulletenya (A separate article of the Mining Information and Analytical Bulletin). 2003. No. 8. 26 p.
  5. Kryukov G.M. Fizika razrusheniya gornykh porod pri burenii i vzryvanii (Physics of destruction of rocks during drilling and blasting). Uchebnoe posobie dlya studentov spetsial'nosti (Textbook for students of the specialty) 091000 «Explosives». Moscow: MGTU. 2004. 102 p.
  6. Shestopal A.O., Fadeeva E.N. Issledovanie dvukh vzaimosvyazannykh neustanovivshikhsya protsessov (Study of two interconnected unsteady processes). Sb. Smeshannye kraevye zadachi i voprosy modelirovaniya / Izdanie instituta matematiki AN USSR. Kiev(Sat. Mixed boundary value problems and modeling issues / Published by the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Kiev). 1975. pp. 110-113.
  7. Kukhta K.Ya., Kravchenko. Ob odnom metode smeshannykh uravneniy flattera kryla k integral'nym uravneniyam (On a method of mixed wing flutter equations for integral equations) Sb. Smeshannye kraevye zadachi i voprosy modelirovaniya (Sb. Mixed boundary value problems and modeling issues) / Izdanie instituta matematiki AN USSR. (Published by the Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR). Kiev. 1975. pp. 187-197.
  8. Malinnikova O.N., Trofimov V.A., Shipovskiy I.E. Chislennoe modelirovanie napryazhenno – deformirovannogo sostoyaniya i razrusheniya gornykh porod pri vzryvnykh rabotakh (Numerical modeling of the stress-strain state and destruction of rocks during blasting operations).Materialy XII Vserossiyskiy s''ezd po fundamental'nym problemam teoreticheskoy i prikladnoy mekhaniki. T. 3: Mekhanika deformiruemogo tverdogo tela (Proceedings of the XII All-Russian Congress on Fundamental Problems of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics). Vol. 3: Mechanics of a Deformable Solid. Ufa: RITs BashGU. 2019. pp.710-712. Doi: 10.22226 / 2410-3535-2019-congress-v3.
  9. Shipovskiy I.E. Komp'yuternoe modelirovanie dinamicheskogo vozdeystviya na sostoyanie gornoy porody v svoystvakh porody (Computer modeling of the dynamic impact on the state of the rock in the properties of the rock) Materialy 3-y Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy shkoly akademika K.N.Trubetskogo «Problemy i perspektivy kompleksnogo osvoeniya i sokhraneniya zemnykh nedr» (Materials of the 3rd International Scientific School of Academician K.N. Trubetskoy «Problems and Prospects of Integrated Development and Conservation of the Earth's Interior»). June 25-29, 2018.Moscow: IPKON RAN. 2018. pp. 154-157.
UDC 622.235
V.M. Zakalinskii, Doctor of Technical Sciences, leading researcher,
R.Ya. Mingazov, ved. engineer
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

About drilling and blasting operations at large depths

Keywords:blasting, cracks, depth of development, stress state, rock pressure, deposit, mines

This article deals with an approach to solution for the urgent modern problem of drilling and blasting operations at great depths. Natural and technological factors, some features of which increase with the depth of field development, affecting the results of blasting operations are shown. Within the framework of the concept of «great depth», the known ultimate compressive strength of the rock massif is given as a criterion for the acting stresses. The real-world tasks and distinctive features of drilling-blasting operations in underground and opencast mining of mineral deposits with increasing depth are formulated, the differences between them are shown.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Kurlenya M.V. Tekhnogennye geomekhanicheskie polya napryazhenij (Technogenic geomechanical stress fields) / M.V. Kurlenya, V.M. Seryakov, A.A. Eremenko. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 2005. 264 p.
  2. Viktorov S.D., Goncharov S.A., Iofis M.A., Zakalinskij V.M. Mekhanika sdvizheniya i razrusheniya gornyh porod (Mechanics of displacement and destruction of rocks) / Otv. red. akad. K. N. Trubeckoj; In-t kompleksnogo osvoeniya nedr im. akademika N.V. Mel'nikova RAN (Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences). Moscow. 2019. 360 p.
  3. Geomekhanicheskie processy v geologicheskoj srede gornotekhnicheskih sistem i upravlenie geodinamicheskimi riskami: monografiya (Geomechanical processes in the geological environment of mining systems and geodynamic risk management: monograph) / A.A. Kozyrev, S.N. Savchenko, V.I. Panin, I.E. Semenova, V.V. Rybin, YU.V. Fedotova, S.A. Kozyrev i dr. Apatity: KNC RAN. 2019. 431 p.
  4. Pevzner M.E., Popov V.N., Makarov A.B. Geomekhanika (Geomechanics). Moscow. izd. MGGU. 2012.
  5. Zakonomernosti izmeneniya napryazhenno deformirovannogo sostoyaniya porodnogo massiva pri intensifikacii gornyh rabot (Regularities of changes in the stress strain state of the rock mass at the intensification of mining operations) S.I. Skipochka, T.A. Palamarchuk, L.V. Prohorec, N.T. Bobro Institut geotekhnicheskoj mekhaniki im. N.S. Polyakova NAN Ukrainy ul. Simferopol'skaya, 2-A, g. Dnepr, 49005, Ukraina.
  6. Mal'skij K.S., Borovkov Yu.A. Analiz rezul'tatov issledovanij po snizheniyu prochnosti gornyh porod ot serijnogo vzryvaniya skvazhinnyh zaryadov vzryvchatyh veshchestv (Analysis of the results of studies on reducing the strength of rocks from serial blasting of borehole charges of explosives. News of higher educational institutions. Geology and exploration). Izvestiya vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij (News of higher educational institutions). Geologiya i razvedka(Geology and exploration). 2020. 1(1). pp. 39-45.
  7. Borshch-Komponiec V.I., Makarov A.B. Upravlenie gornym davleniem pri otrabotke moshchnyh pologih rudnyh zalezhej (Control of rock pressure during mining of powerful shallow ore deposits). Moscow. Nedra. 1986.
  8. Kaspar'yan E.V., Kozyrev A.A., Iofis M.A., Makarov A.B. Geomekhanika(Geomechanics) (uchebnik dlya studentov VUZov)(textbook for university students). Moscow. Vysshaya shkola. 2006.
  9. Tatsienko V.P., Geykhman I.L., Buchatskiy V.M. Issledovanie vliyaniya proyavleniy gornogo davleniya v ochistnykh zaboyakh na izmenenie parametrov burovzryvnykh rabot (Investigation of the influence of rock pressure manifestations in working faces on the change in the parameters of drilling and blasting workers) // Sb. Vzryvnoe delo (Scientific and technical journal. Explosion technology). Issue No 100 / 57.Moscow. ZAO «MVK po vzryvnomu delu», 2008. pp. 245–250.
UDC 622.235
R.R. Zigangirov, PhD student of the Faculty. Explosive case,
Yu.I. Vinogradov, assoc. kaf. Explosive case, Candidate of Technical Sciences,
S.V. Khokhlov, assoc. kaf. Explosive case, Candidate of Technical Sciences
(Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia)
R.A. Rakhmanov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, researcher
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Algorithm for determining the dependence between drilling parameters and physical and mechanical properties of rocks

Keywords:drilling, physical and mechanical properties of rocks, energy intensity of drilling, MWD, rock drillability, rock blastability, specific consumption of explosives, specific energy consumption for crushing the mass of rock

The article assesses the classifications of rocks by their hardness, drillability and blastability, and considers cases in which the application of these characteristics allows to calculate the parameters of drilling and blasting required for the quality of the crushing operations accurately enough. It was defined that for massifs with complex geological structure the parameters of drilling and blasting operations are set with considerable reserve that increases the cost of operations. The basic formulas for determining the specific consumption of explosives used in calculating the parameters of drilling and blasting operations are also considered. These formulas do not take into account changes in the geological structure of the massif and the properties of rocks. Based on all of the above, the authors have proposed a method for determining the type of rock in a block and its physical and mechanical properties through drilling parameters. For this purpose it is enough to determine correlation between parameters of blast drilling and these properties, which, further on, will allow to distribute charge energy in accordance with change of rock properties both on depth of the borehole and on area of the block.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Mohammad Babaei Khorzoughi, Robert Hall, Derek Apel Rock fracture density characterization using measurement while drilling (MWD) techniques // International Journal of Mining and Technology.2018. No. 28.859-864 pp.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2018.01.001
  2. Baron L.I. Koefficienty kreposti gornyh porod (Rock hardness coefficients)// M.: Izd-vo «Nauka» (Moscow: Publishing house «Science»), 1972. 176 p.
  3. Zharikov S.N. Vzaimosvyaz' udel'nyh energeticheskih harakteristik processov sharoshechnogo bureniya i vzryvnogo razrusheniya massiva gornyh porod [Tekst]: dis. na soisk. uchen. step. kand. tekhn. nauk (25.00.20) (Relationship between specific energy characteristics of roller cone drilling and explosive rock massif destruction) // IGD UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg (Institute of Mining Engineering of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences). 2011. 139 p.
  4. Tangaev I.A. Burimost' i vzryvaemost' gornyh porod [Tekst] (Drillability and Blastability of Rocks) // M.: Nedra (Publishing house«Nedra»). 1978. 184 p.
  5. Kutuzov B.N. Metody vedeniya vzryvnyh rabot. CH. 1. Razrushenie gornyh porod vzryvom: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. [Tekst] (Methods of explosive works. Part 1. Destruction of rocks by explosion: Textbook for universities) // M.: Izdatel'stvo «Gornaya kniga». 2007. 471 p.
  6. Fersman A.E. Geohimiya. Tom III (Geochemistry. Vol. III) // Himteoret, Leningrad. 1937. 503 p.
  7. Kryukov G.M. Model' vzryvnogo ryhleniya gornyh porod na kar'erah. Vyhod negabarita. Srednij razmer kuskov porody v razvale [preprint] (Model of explosive loosening of rocks in open pits. Output of Oversize. Average size of rock lumps in the breakage) // M.: Izd-vo Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo gornogo universiteta (Moscow, Publishing house of Moscow State Mining University). 2006. 30 p.
  8. Tangaev I.A. Energoyomkost' processov dobychi i pererabotki poleznyh iskopaemyh [Tekst] (Energy intensity of mining and mineral processing processes) / I.A. Tangaev. – M.: Nedra (Publishing house«Nedra»). 1986. 231 p.
  9. Langefors U., Kil'strem B. Sovremennaya tekhnika vzryvnoj otbojki gornyh porod [per. s anglijskogo] (Modern Technique of Rock Blasting) // M.: Izd-vo «Nedra» (Publishing house«Nedra»). 1968. 284 p.
  10. Kornilkov S.V., Stenin Y.V., Starikov A.D. Raschyot parametrov burovzryvnyh rabot pri skvazhinnoj otbojke na kar'erah [Tekst]: uchebnoe posobie (Calculation of parameters of drilling and blasting operations during downhole stripping in open pits: tutorial) // Ekaterinburg: Izd-vo UGGGA (Publishing house of Ural State Mining University). 1997. 112 p.
UDC 622.235.36
S.V. Khokhlov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor,
V.A. Makkoev, 1-year postgraduate student
(Saint Petersburg Mining University, Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Yu.I. Suvorov, Head of the Kuranakh mine,
I.A. Sivtsev, Chief Engineer of the Kuranakh mine
(JSC Polyus Aldan)

On the expediency of the use of a face in the conditions of blasting of multi-strength rocks

Keywords:drilling and blasting operations, downhole, frozen layer, explosion efficiency, various rocks

The article considers the issue of the use of downhole material in drilling and blasting operations in conditions of permafrost and seasonal permafrost, in the presence of a sharp difference in the physical and mechanical properties of rocks in the height of the ledge. An answer was received to the question about the exceptionally useful effect of the downhole charges. Several experimental explosions were carried out with the use of a slaughterhouse and without the use of a slaughterhouse material. As a result, when blasting without the use of a face, in a difficult mining and geological situation, the quality of preparation of the rock mass for excavation is higher than when blasting in similar conditions using a face material. It is shown that the use of a backfill has a negative effect on the crushing of the upper frozen layer.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Belyaev A.F. On the nature of high-explosive and high-explosive action of explosion / A.F. Belyaev, M.A. Sadovsky // Physics of gorenjei explosion. 1952. No. 1. pp. 32-38.
  2. Burovtsov V.P. Physico-technical substantiation of the parameters of the downhole and assessment of its role in controlling the action of the explosion of borehole charges in quarries / V.P. Burovtsov, V.P. Tarasenko // Problems of explosive business: Sat. art. anddokl. No. 1. 2002. Moscow: MGSU, 2002. pp. 5-9.
  3. Marinichev A.A. applications of the method for determination of the granulometric composition of the rocks with large frames / A.A. Varenikov, V. F. Minto vzryv 1984. No. 86/43.
  4. Explosive breaking of twin benches at the quarry Teya field / V.I. Mashukov, S.N. Eismont, G.P. Ermak, A.A. tereshenkov // Physical problems of rock destruction: Sat. proceedings of the 4th Intern. nauch. Conf. From 18 to 22 October 2004 / – IPKON RAS. M., 2005.
  5. The keywords G. P. the Effect of tamping on the degree of crushing of rocks by explosion // Blast-ing case No. 53/10. M.: Nedra. 1963. pp. 96-105.
  6. Demidyuk G.P. On increasing the degree of useful use of explosion energy // Explosive case No. 60/17. M.: Nedra, 1966. pp. 237-254.
  7. Dobrynin A.A. Method of operational assessment of the quality of crushing rocks by explosive method / A.A. Dobrynin, I.A. Dobrynin // Notes of the Mining Institute. 2009. (180). p. 71.
  8. Kryukov G.M. The main criteria for evaluating explosive crushing of rocks on quarries / G.M. Kryukov, M.I. Dokutovich, S.N. Zhavoronko // Mining Information and Technical Bulletin. – 2007. – No. 2. – pp. 182-198.
  9. Kutuzov B.N. Destruction of rocks by explosion // Moscow: Moscow State University, 1992– – 516s.
  10. Leshchinsky A.V. Blasting of blast wells at quarries / A.V. Leshchinsky, E.B. Shev-kun. – Khabarovsk: Pacific State Publishing House. Un-ta, 2008– – 224 p.
  11. NorovYu.D. Method of explosive destruction of strong inclusions in multi-strength rocks / Yu.D. Norov, Sh.Sh. Zairov // Mining information and technical bulletin. – 2010. – No. 5. – pp. 387-390.
  12. Assessment of the impact of explosion quality on open-pit mining processes / A.N. Karamanov, J.R. Iskandarov, A. Mardonov, O.R. Khayitov // Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. – 2019. – pp. 3-6.
  13. Pat. SU 984279, A1. Method of blasting soils with an upper seasonally frozen layer / Ku-tuzov B.N., Pushkin B.Ya. – No. 3238971; application 23.01.1981; publ. 23.05.1983.
  14. Chevizzi H.A. Recently developed method of clogging plaster for blasting // J.S. Afr. Inst.Mines. Metal.2012. Volume 112. No.12. pp.1071-1078.
  15. Konya K.J., Konya A. The influence of downhole methods on the energy efficiency of communications /Avua-Offey K. (ed.) Energy efficiency in the mining industry. Green energy and technology. Springer, Cham. – 2018.
  16. Tsung-Hsien Zhang, Yang Qiao, Li Yuan Chi, De-Feng Hou, Experimental study of rock fragmentation under various conditions of face in model blasting, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. Volume 143. 2021.

Section 3. Ecology and safety during blasting operations
UDC 622.235
Yu.N. Bolotova, engineer, executive director
(ANO «National Organization of Explosive Engineers», Moscow, Russia)

The influence of the explosive charge design on the formation of seismic and explosive waves

Keywords:explosion, explosive, charge design, seismic explosive waves, combined charge, air gap, initiation, mining operations, degree of crushing, seismogram

In order to obtain comparative qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the transmission of explosion energy to the destructible medium during the detonation of column charges of various designs with various initiation options, full-scale instrumental measurements of the parameters of seismic-explosive waves were carried out in the conditions of production of pilot explosions with subsequent analysis of the amplitude and energy spectra of analog signals. The data obtained may indicate in favor of combined charges and charges with air gaps and from the point of view of seismic safety in the area of protected objects.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Belin V.A., Kutuzov B.N., Ganopolsky M.I. Overchenko M.N., Strogiy I.B. Technology and safety of blasting operations. Moscow: Publishing house «Mining» LLC «Kimmeriysky Center», 2016.- 424 p.
  2. Kutuzov, B.N., Belin V.A. Design and organization of blasting operations. – M.: Publishing House of Moscow State University. – 2011. – 410 p.
  3. Rakishev B.R. Forecasting of technological parameters of blasted rocks at quarries. – Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1983. – 240s.
  4. Adushkin V.V. The main factors of the impact of open-pit mining on the environment. Mining Journal, No. 4, 1996. pp.44-55.
  5. Kutuzov, B.N., Belin V.A. Design and organization of blasting operations. – M.: Publishing House of Moscow State University. – 2011. – 410 p.
  6. Seismic safety during blasting. / Author V. K. Sovmen, B. N. Kutuzov, A.L. Maryasov, B.V. Ekvist, A.V. Tokarenko. – M.: Publishing house «Mountain Book». 2002. 228 p.
  7. Belin V.A., Gorbonos M.G., Mitkov V.E. Influence of the quality of explosives and means of initiation on the efficiency of crushing rock mass by explosion. Proceedings of the international symposium «Miner's Week-2015» Collection of articles. A separate issue of the Mining information and analytical bulletin. – M.: Publishing House «Mountain Book». -2016.-pp.72-80.
  8. Zharikov I.F., Marchenko L.N. Investigation of the mechanism of action of elongated charges during explosion in a solid medium. // Explosive business, M., Nedra, 1971, No. 71/28, pp.81-91.
  9. Seinov N.P., Marchenko L.N. et al. Investigation of the effectiveness of the explosion in multipoint initiation of elongated charges. // Explosive business, M., Nedra, 1972, No. 71/28, pp.102-108.
  10. Hemant Agrawal, Arvind Kumar Mishra. Investigation of the effect of the density and viscosity of an emulsion explosive on its detonation rate// Modeling, measurement and control C.2017. Volume 78. No. 3. pp.316-336.
UDC 622.235.535:622.268: 550.34.052
D.Yu. Knyazev, Junior researcher at the rock destruction laboratory,
V.A. Kutuev, Researcher at the rock destruction laboratory
(Institute of Mining of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences - IM UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia)

Research of static and dynamic stresses during sinking of underground working

Keywords:static and dynamic stresses, ring drift, near-circuit array, seismic vibrations, stability of workings, fastening parameters, spray-concrete support

In the conditions of the Safyanovsky underground mine, studies of static stresses on the support of the workings and the seismic effect of technological explosions during the sinking of the ring drift were carried out. To achieve these goals, industrial tests were carried out and a measurement technique was developed that allows recording the displacement rate of the array at several points using three-component GS-20DX seismic receivers connected to the recording computer using a seismic sensor.When any horizontal excavation or chamber is sunk in a rock block mountain range, a fracture zone is formed around it, the size of which depends on the actual stress state and structure of the rock mass. The size of the rock fracture zone around loose workings is influenced by the structural properties of the rock mass, i.e., the actual fracturing, the stress state of the rock mass, the size of the workings, and the amount of adhesion along the weakening planes.For the conditions of the mine of JSC "Safyanovskaya copper" in the course of experimental studies, it was found that the seismic impact of blasting operations during the sinking of the ring drift is U = 0.043 m/s, that is, less than the permissible value (U = 0.12 m/s) by 2.8 times. From which it can be concluded that technological explosions with such a mass of explosives produced during the construction of the mine in compliance with all established standards do not significantly affect the fastening of underground mine workings, since they do not cause damage that entails the need for repair for technical or aesthetic reasons. Thus, the type of support of the ring drift of the Safyanovsky underground mine is determined taking into account the static load, the action of tectonic stresses and the influence of the seismic impact of the explosion during the sinking of the mine.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Bolikov V.E., Konstantinova S.A. Forecasting and ensuring the sustainability of capital mining operations. Ekaterinburg, UB RAS, 2003. 344 p.
  2. Kartuzov M.I., Pazdnikov N.V. A method of providing seismic safety technology of blasting. IM MFM USSR, Sverdlovsk, 1984. 12 p.
  3. Pazdnikov N.V., Kartuzov M.I. Seismic safety of fixed mine workings in case of mine explosions.Vzryvnoye delo, No85/42, Moscow, Nedra, 1983,pp. 219-228.
  4. Instructions for fixing and maintaining capital, preparatory, rifling and exploration workings of the Safyanovsky underground mine. Ekaterinburg, IMUBRAS, 2012.91p.
  5. KnyazevD.Yu., Zharikov S.N.Study of the seismic effect of explosions in underground mine workings. Vzryvnoye delo, 2014, No 112/69, pp. 251-261.
  6. Kutuev V.A. Investigating the seismic impact made by the underground large-scale blast on the secure facilities of Kyshtym GOK when caving the floor pillar.Izvestija vuzov. Gornyj zhurnal, 2020,No2,pp. 25-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10. 21440/0436-1028-2020-2-25-36
  7. Kutuev V.A., Zharikov S.N. Limitations on seismic effects of technological explosions in the conbined development of the Sarbai deposit. E3S Web of Conferences : [material XVIII Scientific Forum "Ural Mining Decade" (UMD 2020), Ekaterinburg, Russia, April 2-11, 2020/] / R. Apakashev, D. Simisinov ; eds. A. V. Glebov. 2020, Vol. 177, p. 01007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202017701007
  8. Bondarenko I.F., Zharikov S.N., Zyryanov I.V., Shemenev V.G. Drilling and blasting operations at kimberlite quarries of Yakutia. Ekaterinburg, IMUB RAS, 2017. 172 p.
  9. Kumar R., Choudhury D., Bhargava K. Determination of blast-induced ground vibration equations for rocks using mechanical and geological properties //Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 8,No 3,pp. 341-349. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.10.009
  10. Gui Y.L., Zhao Z.Y., Jayasinghe L.B., Zhou H.Y., Goh A.T.C., Tao M. Blast wave induced spatial variation of ground vibration considering field geological conditions // International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2018, Vol. 101,pp. 63-68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2017.11.016
  11. Trubeckoj K.N., Potapov N.G., Vinickij K.E. et al. Open-pit mining: A reference guide,ed. R. S. Jarullina.Moscow, Mining Bureau, 1994. 590 p.

Section 4. Information
To the 90th anniversary of the birth of Kazakov Nikolay Nikolaevich171-172

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