"Explosion technology"— scientific and technical journal

Journal was founded in 1922 by a group of engineers. In Russia and the CIS "Explosion technology" is the only one peer-reviewed specialized periodical in the field of blasting.

Issue 135/92 (2021)

Theory and practice of blasting work

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SNTA - Modern Science and Technology Academy5-5
The first issue of the magazine - the founder of the scientific and tech-nical journal «Explosion Technology» is 100 years old6-14

Section 1. Studies of rock destruction by explosion
UDC 622.235:539.3
S.D. Viktorov, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Head of Department,
N.N. Efremovtsev, Ph.D, Senior Researcher,
I.E. Shipovskii, Ph.D, Senior Researcher,
M.O. Dolgova, Leading Engineer
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS)

Theoretical aspects and results of numerical investigations by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method of the effect of charge density on rock fragmentation

Keywords:explosive, explosive density, charge diameter, explosion zones, physical experiments, computer simulation, smoothed particle method, crushing intensity and uniformity

The relevance of research is due to the need to expand the possibilities of controlling the action of an explosion in order to obtain a rational fragmentation of the rock mass, as well as the economic feasibility of reducing the loss of minerals and eliminating negative environmental factors of blasting. The paper presents some results of investigations of the effect of the charge density of industrial explosive ANFO on the yield of fine and coarse fractions using compositional models and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH). The article deals with the application of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for three-dimensional modeling, the study of the laws of dynamic loading of the massive, the uniformity and intensity of failure in various zones of the explosion. The results of the research made it possible to establish the nature of the dependence of the change in the average size of the piece and the yield of fines on the density of the crushing and gentle action of the explosion. In addition, the dependences of the average size of a piece on the distance to the charge at its different density were established. The calculated data also make it possible to establish the influence of the density of the explosive on the nature of the stress localization. The simulation results show that the chosen approach proved to be useful for the analysis and better understanding of the mechanics of the explosive destruction of the rock mass.
The work was carried out within the framework of the budget theme of IPKON RAS.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Efremovtsev N. N., Trofimov V.N., Shipovskii I. E. Localization of deformations in a wave field induced by explo-sion of lengthy charge // Mining informational and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). 2020, vol 6. pp 73-85 [In Russian]
  2. N.N. Efremovtsev, P.N. Efremovtsev, V.A. Trofimov, I.E. Shipovskii A Procedure for Rock Failure Process Analysis at Various Scales // AIP Conference Proceedings 2509, 020058, 5 pp (2022).
  3. Efremovtsev N. N., Efremovtsev P. N., Trofimov V.N., Shipovskii I. E. Results of numerical studies of rock fragmentation within the blasted block using the gridless smoothed particle hydrodynamics method // Mining informational and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). 2021, vol 131/88. pp 29-45 [In Russian]
  4. Efremovtsev N. N., Shipovskii I. E. Investigation by the numerical smoothed particle hydrodynamics method of the Influence of design features of borehole charges on rock fragmentation // Mining informational and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). 2021, vol 132/89. pp 27-39 [In Russian]
  5. Efremovtsev N. N., Shipovskii I. E. Numerical study of the influence of drilling and blasting parameters on the uniformity of destruction of a rock mass // Fundamental and applied issues of mining sciences. - Novosibirsk. - vol 8. - no 1. - 2021. - pp 73-78. [In Russian]
  6. Efremovtsev N. N., Shipovskii I. E. Investigation of the regularities of crushing by elongated charges using compositional models and numerical modeling by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method // Explosive business. - 2020. - Issue. 128/85. - pp 20-37. [In Russian]
  7. J.J. Monagan. An introduction to SPH // Comput. Phys. Comm., 1988, v.48, pp 89–96.
  8. Libersky L.D. Smootred Particle Hydrodynamics: Some recent implements and applications /L.D.Libersky, P.W.Randles // Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg.- vol139.- 1996.- pp 375-408
  9. Shipovskii I.E. Three-dimensional calculation of the fracture of specimens with a crack // Geotechnical mechanics. - IGTM NAS of Ukraine. - Dnepr, 2014. - Issue. 20(1). - 2014. - pp 191-198. [In Russian]
  10. Shipovskii I.E. Calculation of brittle fracture of rock using the meshless method // Scientific Bulletin of NSU - NSU. - Dnepr, - vol 1(145). - 2015. - pp 76-82. [In Russian]
  11. Graya J.P. Numerical modelling of stress fields and fracture around magma chambers / J.P. Graya, J.J. Monaghan // Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. - vol 135.- 2004. – pp 259–283.
UDC 622.235
Kantor V. Kh., General Director,
(NTF " Explosion Technology")
Rakhmanov R.A., Cand. tech. Sci., Researcher,
Frantov A.E., leading researcher, doctor of technical Sciences,
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS)
Alenichev I.A., Cand. tech. Sci., Lead Drilling and Blasting Engineer
(Polyus Project LLC)
Fadeev V. Yu., technical Director

Investigation of the parameters of contour borehole explosive charges for the formation of a cut-off gap in rocks during the cutting of ledges in quarries

Keywords:cut-off slot, counter, charge, quarry side, explosive, well diameter

In open-pit mining, contour blasting by the method of borehole explosive charges is used to improve the stability of the slopes of the ledges and sides of the quarry when they enter the design contour. At the same time, the method of preliminary crevice formation (MPSH) is used as a contour blasting technology, which provides for the formation of a cut-off gap ahead of time in front of the protected rock mass contour from deformations before the explosion of the main downhole loosening charges. In the satya, the authors present a developed and scientifically based new engineering technique for determining the parameters of contour explosive charges in dry and watered wells for the formation of cut-off slots, as well as the geometric parameters of the location of borehole charges of explosives (explosives) detonated in the pre-circuit and main working block in rocky rocks when cutting ledges and setting the sides of quarries to the limit position.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Kartashov Yu.M., Matveev B.V., Mikheev G.V. Strength and deformability of rocks. M., Nedra, 1979.
  2. Mosinets V.N. Crushing and seismic effect of explosion in rocks. M., Nedra, 1976.
  3. Cherepanov G.P. Mechanics of brittle fracture. M., Nauka, 1974.
  4. Makhutov N.A. Resistance of structural elements to brittle destruction. M., Mechanical Engineering, 1973.
  5. Galkin V.V., Gilmanov R.A., Drogoveyko I.Z. Blasting operations under water. M., Nedra, 1987.
  6. Azarkovich A.E., Shuifer M.I., Pokrovsky G.I., Luginov N.P. Crushing of rock massifs by explosion in the practice of hydraulic engineering construction. M., Energoizdat, 1993
  7. Azarkovich A.E., Shuifer M.I., Tikhomirov A.P. Blasting operations near protected objects. M. Nedra, 1984
  8. Technical rules for conducting blasting operations in energy construction". M., JSC "Institute Gidroproekt, 1997
  9. Avdeev F.A., Baron V.L., Gurov N.V., Kantor V.H. Normative reference book on drilling and blasting. M., Nedra, 1986.
UDC 622.831
Tyupin V.N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
(Belgorod State National Research)
Ponomarenko K.B.– postgraduate student, engineer
(Belgorod State National Research, JSC "VIOGEM", laboratory of Rock Pressure and Rock Displacement)

Estimation of rock pressure in the massif of ironic quartzites on the basis of explosion of shore charges of explosives

Keywords:the stress state of the massif, the impact of the explosion, the penetration of holes, physical and mechanical properties of rocks, rock mass, fracturing, explosive substances, hole, crushing zone, diameter of the “cup"

Methods for determining the stress-strain state of mountain massifs based on physical, mechanical, geometric and geological principles are analyzed. Many of the methods are very time-consuming. A method for determining the stress state (NS) based on the dynamic effect of an explosion is proposed. When an explosive charge explodes in a hole in a very short period of time, gaseous products create a certain pressure, which, combined with the rock pressure in the surrounding array, ensures the creation of a crushing zone in the array. Moreover, with an increase in mountain pressure, the diameter of the crushing zone increases. A theoretical calculation formula is given, where the NS is determined through the physical and technical properties of the array, the detonation characteristics of explosives and the diameter of the crushing zone - the diameter of the “cup". In the workings of the Gubkin mine, mountain – 250 m, industrial experiments were carried out and parameters were established, after substituting them into the formula, a simple analytical formula for calculating HC for ferruginous quartzites was obtained. Numerical calculations are carried out according to the analytical formula. It is established that the NS determined by the explosive method is 15.8 – 46.1 MPa, this corresponds to the data obtained by JSC "VIOGEM" in 2017-2021 by methods of unloading on large bases and slot unloading of the array (15.0 – 40.0 MPa). This indicates the validity of the analytical formula. The proposed method has efficiency (it is possible to use the results of bursts of boreholes during excavation) and can be used to assess the NS of the mountain massif.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Samoilov V. L., Nefedov V. E. Management of the state of the rock mass. – Donetsk: DONNTU, - 2016. – 204 p.
  2. Sergeev, S. V., Sinitsa I. V. Geomechanical support of underground mining of iron ores at the KMAruda combine // Mining Journal. – 2019. – No. 8. – pp. 30-33. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2019.08.05.
  3. Khmelinin A. P. Development of an integrated geophysical method forboron of the location of wells for geomechanical measurements and control of their drilling process. – Novosibirsk: IGD SB RAS, - 2014 – p. 165.
  4. Shkuratnik V. L. Methods for determining the stress-strain state of an array of rocks. – M.: MGSU, - 2012. – 112 p.
  5. Zubkov A.V., Feklistov Yu. G., Lipin Ya. I., Khudyakov S. V. Deformation methods for determining the stress state of rocks on subsurface objects // Problems of subsurface use. – 2016. – No. 4. pp. 41 – 49. DOI: 10.18454/2313-1586.2016.04.041.
  6. De Souza J. C., Da Silva A. C. S., Rocha S. S. Analysis of blasting rocks pre-diction and rock fragmentation results using split-desktop software // Tecnologia em Meta-lurgia Materiais e Mineração. 2018. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 22–30. DOI:10.4322/2176-1523.1234.
  7. Duc-Phi D; Nam-Hung Tran; Hong-Lam Dang; Dashnor Hoxha. Closed-form solution of stress and stability analysis of wellbore in anisotropic permeable rock // International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2019. Vol. 113.P. 11-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2018.11.002.
  8. De-sheng Zhou, Haiyang Wang, Zexuan He, Yafei Liu, Shun Liu, Xianlin Ma, Wenbing Cai, J. Bao. Numerical study of the influence of seepage force on the stress field around a vertical wellbore // Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Me-chanics (IF8.391), Pub Date : 2020-11-17, DOI: 10.1080/19942060.2020.1835733.
  9. Ifran Shahrin; Radzuan Sa’ari; Rini Asnida Abdullah. Effect of Burden to Hole Diameter Ratio on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting using LS-DYNA // Rock Dynam-ics Summit (pp.697-701). DOI: 10.1201/9780429327933-112.
  10. Tyupin V. N. The mechanism of formation of the zone of residual stresses during blasting in the fractured granite massif of the mines of PJSC "PPGHO" // Mining Journal. – 2020. – No.10. – pp.60-64. DOI:10.17580/gzh.2020.10.04.
  11. Pavlov A.M. Forecast of the geomechanical state the massif of the mountain rocks of the deep horizons of the Zun-Kholbinsky deposit // Mining Information and analytical Bulletin. – 2020. – No. 5. – pp. 105-114. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2020-50-105-114.
  12. Bryzgalov V. I., Baryshnikov V. D., Bulatov V. A., Gakhova L. N. Control of the stress-strain state of the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP dam // GTS. – 2000. – No. 10. – pp. 51-55.
  13. Rasskazov I. Yu., Fedotova Yu. V., Sidlyar A.V., Potapchuk M. I. An analysis of the manifestations of technogenic seismicity in the impact-prone rock mass of the Nikolayev deposit // Mining information and analytical Bulletin. – 2020. – No. 11. – pp. 46-56. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2020-11-0-46-56.
  14. Mengel D. A. Change in the initial stress state of a certain section of the Sokolovsky deposit in the process of mining // Mining information and analytical bulletin. — 2020. — No. 3-1. — pp. 138-148. DOI: 10.25018/02361493-2020-31-0-138-148.
  15. Masaev Yu. A., Masaev V. Yu. Investigation of conditions for the formation of fracture zones in the rock mass during the construction of mine workings using blasting // Bulletin of the Scientific Center for the safety of work in the coal industry. - 2020. - No. 1. - pp. 17-22.
  16. Masaev, Yu. A. Investigation of the influence of the stressed state of the mountain range on the efficiency of blasting // Bulletin of the Kuzbass State Technical University. Materials of the II Russian-Chinese Symposium "Construction of underground structures and mines", 2002, No. 5. – pp. 53-54.
  17. Golik V. I., Komashchenko V. I., Kachurin N. M., Stas G. V. Investigation of geodynamics of the massif in the interface zone of treatment and preparatory workings // Izvestiya Tomsk Polytechnic university. Geore-sursov engineering. 2019. vol. 330. No. 12. pp. 82-90. DOI 10.18799/24131830/2019/12/2395.
  18. Tyupin V. N. Explosive and geomechanical processes in fractured stressed mountain massifs. — Belgorod: Publishing house ― “Belgorod", 2017. — 192 p.
  19. Tyupin V. N., Rubashkina T. I. Explosive methods for determining the stress state of rock massifs. // FTPRPI. – 2018. – No. 4. – pp. 44-50.
  20. Patent RU 2768768. A method for determining the stress state of a rock mass / V. N. Tyupin, K. B. Ponomarenko. - No. 2021115801; application 02.06.2021.
UDC 625.235
I.F. Zharikov, Leading Researcher, Doctor of Technical Sciences
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS)

Evaluation of the effectiveness of manage-ment of the processes of drilling and blasting preparation of the mountain range for excavation

Keywords:charge, charge design, explosion, granulometric composition, detonation, crushing efficiency, mathematical representation of the gran composition

On the basis of experimental data, criteria for assessing the efficiency of the explosion of charges of various structures are proposed, including the parameters of statistical processing of the granulometric composition and its representation in the Rosin-Rammler coordinates, as well as the specific flow rate and energy of explosives. The ranking of charges by the effectiveness of their use in the crushing of rocks by the explosion of borehole charges was carried out.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Repin N.Ya., Repina L.N. Processes of open mining works // M., Gornaya kniga, 2015, p. 518.
  2. Cherepanov G.P. On the influence of impulse on the development of the initial crack // PMTF, 1983, No 1, p. 17-20.
  3. Zharikov I.F., Seinov N.P. On the quality of preparation of blown up rock mass for schemes of cyclic-flow technology // Collection "Explosive business", M., 2020, No 126/83, p. 11-21.
  4. Vinogradov Yu.I. Methods of assessing the effectiveness of crushing the massif of rocks by various types of explosives // Collection "Explosive business", M., 2010, No 104/61, pp. 91-97.
  5. Zharikov I.F. Theoretical and experimental researches of processes of formation of finely dispersed solid waste during drilling operations at underground mines // Engineering physics, 2019, № 8, p. 41-49.
UDC 51-7, 622.235:539.3
A.M. Bubenchikov, leading researcher, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor
(Regional Scientific and Educational Mathematical Center, Tomsk State University)
E.B. Brazovskiy, Postgraduate student
(National Research Tomsk State University)

Hydrodynamic model of a funnel from an explosion by a vertically located buried charge

Keywords:hydrodynamics, ejection funnel, complex variables, vertically positioned charge, buried charge, ideal fluid, jet theory, trenching

In the work using a solid–liquid model of the soil and methods of the theory of jets of an ideal liquid, namely the apparatus of analytical functions, an analytical solution to the problem of the ejection of soil during the explosion of a buried charge is constructed for the case when this charge is located vertically and has the shape of a rectangle whose length far exceeds its width, which is the height of the embedded charge. A distinctive feature of the obtained solution is that within the framework of the formed mathematical model, it is accurate, has a finite form and is expressed in elementary functions.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Bolotova Yu. N. The influence of the explosive charge design on the formation of seismic explosive waves // Explosive business. – 2021 (133-90). – pp. 149-157.
  2. Viktorov S. D., Zakalinsky V. M., Shipovsky I. E. The concept of development of drilling and blasting operations in the development of mineral deposits // Explosive business. – 2021 (133-90). – pp. 100-112.
  3. Gurevich M. I. Theory of jets of an ideal liquid. M.: Fizmatgiz, 1961. – 496 p.
  4. Zakalinsky V. M., Mingazov R.Ya. On drilling and blasting operations at great depths // Explosive business. – 2021 (133 90). – pp. 113-121.
  5. Kuznetsov V. M. Mathematical models of explosive business. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1977, pp.84-127.
  6. L. M. Milne-Thomson. Theoretical hydrodynamics. M.: "MIR", 1974.
  7. M. A. Lavrentiev, B. V. Shabat. Methods of the theory of functions of a complex variable. M.: "Science", 1973.
  8. Martynyuk P. A. On the shape of the ejection funnel during an explosion in the ground of a cord charge // National economic use of the explosion. – Novosibirsk, 1965. – No. 30. – pp. 3-9.
  9. Norov A. Yu. The problem of controlling the energy of an explosion during the formation of the collapse of an exploded rock mass at quarries // Explosive business. – 2020 (129-86). – pp. 85-104.
  10. Khokhlov S. V., Bazhenova A. V. Investigation of the issue of management and control over the displacement of the exploded ore mass // Explosive business. – 2021 (132-89). – pp. 59-76.

Section 2. State and improvement of explosives, devices and blasting agents
UDC 622.235
A.S. Derzhavets – Doctor. technical sciences, Professor, President,
I.O. Shkalyabin – Candidate of Technical Sciences, General Director
(LLC "ITC "Explosion Testing")

On the issue of stability of detonation processes of emulsion explosives

Keywords:detonation process, emulsion explosives, external factors, sensitization, shock wave

Detonation processes depend on the nature of explosives and external factors. For complex explosives of the type of emulsion, gel, etc., an unsteady detonation process is characteristic, depending on the composition and quality of the preparation of explosives, charging conditions and detonation propagation. The influence of initiation processes, shock waves and external pressure on the stability of the process is considered.

Bibliographic list:
  1. F.A. Baum, B.I. Shechter, K.P. Stanyukovich. Physics of explosion. M.1959.
  2. E.V.Kolganov, V.A.Sosnin. Emulsion industrial explosives 2009.
  3. S.A.Gorinov, Scientific and technical foundations and technologies for ensuring stable detonation of EVV in borehole charges. doct. diss, 2018.
  4. I.Y. Maslov, V.I. Sivenkov et al. Industrial emulsion explosives and initiation systems in explosives; ed. M., VNIIgeosystem, 2018.
  5. S.A. Gorinov, Initiation and detonation of emulsion explosives, Yoshkar-Ola, String, 2020.
UDC 622.235.212:662.242
S.N. Zharikov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Head of the Laboratory of Rock Destruction,
V.A. Kutuev, Researcher at the rock destruction laboratory
(Institute of Mining of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences - IM UB RAS)

About the patterns of detonation of explosives

Keywords:explosion, detonation velocity, shock wave, density of emulsion explosives, properties of industrial emulsion explosives, poremite 1A, nitronite E-70

The explosion is an extremely rapid release of energy into the environment with a short action, but of enormous power. Throughout history, mankind has tried to understand this physical phenomenon for the purpose of subsequent military or economic use. The use of an explosion in the extraction of minerals has opened up unprecedented opportunities for the destruction of an array of rocks for subsequent excavation and transportation. With the development of science and technology, the methods of production of explosives were improved, and their forms of release began to possess various consumer qualities. All this time, the process of explosive transformation has been studied in various ways, but despite the widespread use of explosives in the economy, this spontaneous process has not yet been fully studied. This is due to the fact that the process is too fast (several kilometers per second) and it is not possible to study it using conventional research methods. The explosion is mainly studied by indirect methods and theoretically with subsequent experiments. It happens that different compositions react differently to the initiating pulse, and the shape of the charge and the distance between the charges can generally act as a limiter for the propagation of detonation and lead to the most dangerous consequences in the production of explosive work - failures. The article concentrates on the features of the course of explosive processes described in the scientific and technical literature and provides some information about the patterns obtained when studying the detonation rate of emulsion explosives poremit 1A and nitronite E-70. Experimental data were obtained in industrial conditions when testing sleeve and borehole explosive charges with different diameters and charging densities. The detonation pressure was also calculated at a distance from the explosion of some explosives.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Pokrovskij G. I. Explosion. – 4th ed., reprint. and additional, Moscow, Nedra, 1980. 190 p.
  2. Methods and measuring instruments for modeling and field studies of nonlinear deformation-wave processes in block rock massifs // Edited by V.L. Shkuratnik; IM SB RAS, etc., Novosibirsk, Publishing House SB RAS, 2007. 320 p.
  3. Аndreev S. G. et al. Physics of explosion: in 2 vol., ed. L. P. Orlenko. 3rd ed., supplement and revision, Moscow, Fizmatlit, 2002.
  4. Khanukaev А. N. The energy of stress waves during the destruction of rocks by explosion, Moscow, Nedra, 1962. 199 p.
  5. Baum F. А., Stanyukovich K. P., Shekhter B. I. Physics of Explosion, Moscow, Fizmatgiz Publishing House, 1959. 792 p.
  6. Theory of explosives: collection of articles, ed. K. K. Andreev, A. F. Belyaev, A. I. Golbindera, A. G. Gorsta, Moscow, OBORONGIZ, 1963, 580 p.
  7. Zel'dovich Ya. B., Rajzer Yu. P. Physics of shock waves and high-temperature hydrodynamic phenomena, Moscow, Nauka, 1966, 687 p.
  8. Zagirnyak M. V., Kozlovskaya T. F., Chebenko V. N. Pyroelectric effect of explosives and parameters of their electromagnetic component, Vzryvnoye delo, 2010, no.104/61, pp. 36-48.
  9. Kornilkov M. V. Destruction of rocks by explosion: lecture notes, Yekaterinburg, Publishing House of UGSU, 2008, 202 p.
  10. Zharikov S. N. About the physics of the explosion, Vzryvnoye delo, 2008, no. 100/57, pp. 77-82.
  11. Orlenko L. P. Physics of explosion and impact: textbook manual for universities, Moscow, FIZMATLIT, 2006, 304 p.
  12. Pokrovskij G. I. Hydrodynamics of high speeds, Moscow, Znanie, 1966, 48 p.
  13. Muchnik S. V. Development and scientific substantiation of technical and technological solutions for the management of high-explosive explosion in the mining industry : dissertation of the Doctor of Technical Sciences, IM SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 2000, 327 p.
  14. Marakhtanov M. K., Marakhtanov А. M. Metal explodes, Nauka i zhizn', 2002, no 4, pp. 16-19.
  15. Аdushkin V. V., Solov'ev S. P. Generation of electric and magnetic fields during air, ground and underground explosions, Fizika goreniya i vzryva, 2004, Vol. 40, no 6, pp. 42-51.
  16. Sadovskij M. А. Geophysics and Physics of explosion: Selected works, ed. V. V. Adushkin, Moscow, Nauka, 2004, 440 p.
  17. Mosinets V. N. Crushing and seismic action of explosion in rocks, Moscow, Nedra, 1976, 271 p.
  18. Kuk M. А. Science of industrial explosives : translated from English, ed. G. P. Demidyuk, N. S. Bakharevich, Moscow, Nedra, 1980, 453 p.
  19. Belin V. А., Kutuzov B. N., Ganopol'skij M. I. et al. Technology and safety of blasting operations, Moscow, Publishing House "Mining", 2016, 424 p.
  20. Belyaev А.F. Bobolev V.K., Korotkov А.I., Sulimov А.А., Chujko S.V. Transition of gorenje condensed systems into explosion, Moscow, Nauka, 1973, 292 p.
  21. Dubnov L. V., Bakharevich N. S., Romanov А. I. Industrial explosives, Moscow, Nedra, 1988, 360 p.
  22. Gorinov S. А. Initiation and detonation of emulsion explosives, Yoshkar-Ola, IPF String LLC, 2020, 214 p.
  23. Orlova E. Yu. Chemistry and technology of high explosives, textbook for universities, 3rd ed. revised, Leningrad, Chemistry, 1981, 312 p.
  24. Khariton Yu. B. Collection of scientific articles, Sarov, All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, 2003, 451 p.
  25. Explosive generators of powerful electric current pulses, ed. V.E. Fortov, Moscow, Nauka, 2002, 399 p.
  26. Svetlov B. Ya., Yaryomenko N. E. Theory and properties of industrial explosives, Moscow, Nedra, 1973, 208 p.
  27. Questions of the theory of explosives: collection of articles, ed. B. S. Svetlov, B. N. Kondrikova, Y. Ya. Maksimova, Moscow, Proceedings of the Moscow Art Institute named after D. I. Mendeleev, 1974, 192 p.
  28. Generalov M. B. Basic processes and devices of industrial explosives technology: textbook manual for universities, Moscow, ICC "Akademkniga", 2004, 397 p.
  29. Gurin А. А. Control of shock air waves during blasting, Moscow, Nedra, 1978, 81 p.
  30. Аdushkin V. V., Spivak А. А. Geomechanics of large-scale explosions, Moscow, Nedra, 1993, 319 p.
  31. Kutuev V. А. Study of detonation characteristics of the industrial emulsion explosive poremit-1A, using the DATATRAPII™ data recorder, Gornyj informatsionno-analiticheskij byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskij zhurnal), 2016, no. S21, pp. 101-109.
  32. Kutuev V. А., Flyagin А. S., Zharikov S. N. Investigation of detonation characteristics of HDPE NPGM with various initial components of the emulsion when initiating charges with different intermediate detonators, Izvestiya Tul'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Nauki o Zemle, 2021, no. 3, pp. 175-187, DOI 10.46689/2218-5194-2021-3-1-169-181.
  33. Kutuev V. А., Men'shikov P. V., Zharikov S. N. Analysis of methods for the study of detonation processes of explosives, Problemy nedropol'zovaniya, 2016, no. 3, pp. 78-87.
  34. Men'shikov P. V., Zharikov S. N., Kutuev V. А. Determination of the width of the chemical reaction zone of the industrial emulsion explosive poremit 1A based on the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics, Gornyj informatsionno-analiticheskij byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskij zhurnal), 2021, no. 5-2, pp. 121-134, DOI:10.25018/0236_1493_2021_52_0_121.
  35. Zharikov S. N. Men'shikov P. V., Sinitsyn V. А. Determination of the relationship between the density, detonation velocity and charge diameter by the example of the emulsion explosive "nitronite", Izvestiya vuzov. Gornyj zhurnal, 2015, no. 6, pp. 35-39.
  36. Zharikov S. N. Development of resource-saving drilling and blasting technology, Izvestiya vuzov. Gornyj zhurnal, 2019, No. 1, pp. 21-32, DOI: 10.21440/0536-1028-2019-1-21-32.
  37. Bondarenko I. F., Zharikov S. N., Zyryanov I. V., Shemenyov V. G. Drilling and blasting operations at kimberlite quarries of Yakutia, Yekaterinburg, IM UB RAS, 2017, 172 p.
UDC 622.235
Gorinov S.A. – Doctor of Technical Sciences, leading researcher, Scientific consultant of Global Mining Explosive-Russia LLC
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS)
Koretsky A.S. – Senior lecturer
(N.M. Fedorovsky Polar State University)
Maslov I.Yu. – Candidate of Technical Sciences, Chief Engineer
(Global Mining Explosive-Russia LLC)

Estimation of the duration of preservation of the ability to initiate a downhole charge of emulsion explosives sensitized by gas pores

Keywords:emulsion explosive, sensitization, gas bubble, ascent rate, explosive decomposition ability

The paper presents a theoretical assessment of the duration of preservation of the ability to initiate a downhole charge of an emulsion explosive (EVV) sensitized by gas pores with the lower location of the intermediate detonator in the downhole charge. The obtained patterns are of interest to specialists involved in both the use of EVV and the improvement of this type of industrial explosives.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Xiguang V. Emulsion explosives. Trans. monographs of Prof. Wang Xiguang editions of Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, 1994/ Wang Xiguang. - Krasnoyarsk: Metallurgical Industry Press. - 2012. - 380 p.
  2. Kalganov E.V. Emulsion industrial substances. - 1st book (Compositions and properties) / E.V. Kalganov, V.A. Sosnin. – Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod region: Publishing house of the State Research Institute "Crystal". - 2009. – 592 p.
  3. Kalganov E.V. Emulsion industrial substances. - 2nd book (Technology and Security) / E.V. Kalganov, V.A. Sosnin. – Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod region: Publishing house of the State Research Institute "Crystal". - 2009. – 336 p.
  4. Zhuchenko E.I. Application of EVV, sensitized by the method of gas generation, in deep wells / Zhuchenko E.I. [et al.]// Occupational safety in industry. - 2002. - No. 11. - p.30-32.
  5. Sosnin V.A. Features of the mechanism of detonation of emulsion explosives / V.A. Sosnin, Mezheritsky S.E., Pechenev Yu.G., etc. // Bulletin of Kazan Technological University. - 2016. - Vol. 19. - No. 19. - pp. 28-33.
  6. Gorinov S.A. Initiation and detonation of emulsion explosives/ S.A. Gorinov. – Yoshkar-Ola: String. - 2020. – 214 p.
  7. Fokin V.A. Distribution of density of emulsion explosives by the height of the column of the borehole charge / V.A. Fokin // Izv. VUZov. Mining Journal. - 2007. - No. 3. - pp.89-94.
  8. Ilyakhin S.V. Density of emulsion explosives (EVV) with chemical gas generation containing a dry phase, and EVV sensitized with polystyrene, according to the height of the borehole charge/ S.V. Ilyakhin, I.Y. Maslov// Mining information and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). Separate (special) issue. - 2012. - № 12. - 12 S.
  9. Gorinov S.A. Density of an emulsion explosive sensitized by gas pores along the length of a rising borehole charge/ S.A. Gorinov, I.Y. Maslov// Mining information and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). Selected articles (special issue) - 2013. - № 11. - 12 S.
  10. Gorinov S.A. Structure of the oxidative phase of emulsion explosives / S.A. Goryunov, B.N. Kutuzov, E.P. Sobina // Mining information and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). - 2011. - № 3-1. - pp. 20-33.
  11. Sosnin V.A. The state and prospects of development of industrial explosives in Russia and abroad / V.A. Sosnin, S.E. Mezheritsky// Bulletin of Kazan Technological University. - 2016. – Vol. 19. - No. 19. – pp. 84-89.
  12. Gorinov S.A. Highly concentrated suspensions of ammonium nitrate nanoparticles – the basis of emulsion explosives / S.A. Gorinov, I.Y. Maslov, E.P. Sobina // Occupational safety in industry. - 2013.- No. 10.- pp.44-47.
  13. Landau L.D. Theoretical physics. Vol.6. Hydrodynamics/ L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshits. – M.: Nauka, 1988. – 733 p.
  14. Annikov V.E. On the mechanism of detonation of gas-filled water gels / V.E. Annikov, B.N. Kondrikov, N.N. Korneeva, S.N. Puzyrev // Physics of gorenje i explosion. - 1983. - Vol. 19. - No. 4. - pp.139-143.

Section 3. Technology of blasting in the mining of solid minerals
UDC 622.271.39
I.F. Zharikov, Leading Researcher,Doctor of Technical Sciences
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences – IPKON RAS)

On the relationship of the loosening coefficient with the volume of transport vessels

Keywords:degree of crushing, loosening coefficient, explosive crushing, carrying capacity, capacity of dump trucks, fractions, transport vessels

The influence of the degree of crushing of rocks by the explosion on the productivity of vehicles is considered. It is shown that the coefficient of utilization of carrying capacity, and, consequently, the productivity of dump trucks largely depends on the coefficient of loosening of the rock mass, the value of which is determined by the percentage ratio of fractions of different sizes. Industrial experiments have shown that, depending on the lumpiness of the submerged rock mass, the value of the loosening coefficient in the body of a dump truck can vary from 1.27 to 1.50. High and uniform crushing of rocks with a loosening coefficient in the body of a dump truck of 1.3 allows to increase the technical productivity of vehicles by 1.2-1.3 times and reduce the wear of machines and mechanisms.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Repin N.Ya., Repina L.N. Processes of open mining works // M., Gornaya kniga, 2015, p. 518.
  2. Kutuzov B.N. Problems of explosive destruction of rocks in the mining industry // Mining Journal, 1997, No 10, s 31-35.
  3. Galimulin A.T., Prokopenko V.S. Methodical provisions for determining the lumpiness of the rock mass // Explosive business, M., Nedra, 1994, No 86/43, p. 191-198.
  4. Zharikov I.F., Seinov N.P. On the quality of preparation of blown up rock mass for schemes of cyclic-flow technology // Collection of Explosive Business, M., 2020, No 126/83, p. 11-21.
UDC 622.235
Belin V.A., Professor, Doctor. Technical Sciences, President of the ANO NOIV of Russia
(Mining Institute of NUST MISIS)
Tyupin V.N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Bolotova Yu.N., Postgraduate student
(Belgorod State National Research)

Development prospects and environmental safety of the drilling and blasting complex of large mining enterprises

Keywords:blasting, explosives, emulsion explosives, environment, explosive technologies, drilling, seismic safety

Ensuring the maximum reduction of the environmental impact of mining and blasting operations on the environment with strict compliance with the requirements and rules of labor protection is the main task of the miners of the drilling and blasting complex. One of the trends of modern explosive technologies is the use of electronic means at all stages of preparation and conduct of blasting operations. Electronic systems from drilling design, building a 3D model of a block, designing an explosion and analyzing its results demonstrate huge opportunities. These systems have been successfully implemented in production and have a significant effect. The prospects for the development of the drilling and blasting complex are associated with the introduction of new equipment and materials, conducting large-scale research and training highly qualified personnel in the explosive business

Bibliographic list:
  1. Transcript of the meeting of the Commission on the development strategy of the fuel and energy complex and environmental safety on August 27, 2018. https://www.rosteplo.ru/soc/blog/ekonomik/3676.html;
  2. V.A. Belin, M.G. Gorbonos, E.O. Astakhov. Influence of means of initiation on the efficiency and safety of blasting. M.: Mining magazine No. 7-2017. - S. 63-67.
  3. K.K. Shvedov “On the concept and safety indicators of modern explosive materials for industrial use. All-Russian conference “On the state of the explosive business in the Russian Federation. The main problems and ways to solve them. // Sat. reports and articles. From MGGU, M., 2002, - P.70.
  4. Technical regulation of the Customs Union TR TS 028/2012 "On the safety of explosives and products based on them"
  5. V.N. Tyupin Parameters of seismic action of mass explosions in isotropic and complex-structural rock masses. M.: GIAB, No. 12, 2021. - P. 47-57.

Section 4. Review of achievements in the world practice of explosive technology
UDC 622.235:539.3
R. Turnbull, Technical Manager for Eastern Australia
(EMTS, Australia)

Ground reaction time measurement and modelling for improved blast outcomes

Keywords:mine, initiation system, electronic explosion, discharge rate, soil reaction time

Maules Creek mine is an open cut coal nearBoggabri in the Gunnedah Basin of New South Wales, Australia. The mine is currently operating at an annualised run rate of 9.5Mt of saleable coal. The plan is to ramp up production to 13Mtpa. Maules Creek has multiple seams each with varying depths; theinter-burden rangesfrom a fewmetres thick to greater than 30m(98ft). Due to this,Maules Creek mine is utilisingtruck shovel operationsrather thana cast/dozer push operation. Currently the mine utilises a non-electric initiation system for itsblasting operations with standard timing regimes for the various coal seam inter-burden horizons. The timing regimes are very generic and not specifically selected for each blastarea.These timing regimes were processedthrough a scatter simulation to determine potential choking effects throughout the body of a standard blast,which can be up to 200m(656ft)wide. Standard relief rates provided large areas of out of sequence firing potential. With the planned mine ramp up of production,management realised that a more engineered approach to blasting would be required to achieve the mining rates desired. In consultation with the mine engineers and management,a program has been devised to measure and model the ground reaction times and pressure wavevelocitiesin the different inter-burdens to provide a baseline for future optimisation work. The program will be utilising both High Frame Rate (HFR) video analysis and high frequency vibration measurement to measure the exact effects and reactions that various inter-burdens in the mine have to explosive detonation. Oncethe specific reaction times and pressure-wave velocities are captured and measured they willbe modelled to allow analysis of timing regimes that promote fragmentation and muckpile looseness. Timing regimes that are only possible with electronic initiation systems will be applied to improve blast results, as part of an entire site effort to increase dig rates for the excavator fleets.This paper will present the results of the program.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Hawkins, J. How to Write a Paper for the ISEE. The International Society of Explosives Engineers Annual Conference Proceedings. 2013. Cleveland: ISEE. (pp. 1-3)
  2. Maules Creek Coal Mine, Mine Plan Fact sheet. Gunnedah: Whitehaven Coal LTD (2013).
UDC 625.235
R. Mandaka, Senior Engineer of drilling and blasting operations
(Enaex, Chile)

Study of vibrations in far and near field to determine the technical feasibility of massive blasting

Keywords:vibration, drilling and blasting, deceleration, modeling, mining, near zone

Without a doubt, mining is a key engine in world development. In the case of Chile, among its main economic activities, we find copper mining, which contributes 30% of world production. Currently, a mine exploits its copper oxide reserves with an annual production of 52 Kt of copper cathodes, in average. These reserves will deplete in 2021. For this reason, the mine needs to exploit its sulfide reserves, which forces to increase the tonnage of each blast to meet production goals thus extending the mine life until 2041. In this situation, this paper focuses on showing a technical feasibility project for massive blasting through the study of vibrations, in the near field and in the far field, seeking to provide optimal solutions to future productivity goals, it means to obtain vibration levels below current levels (tonn <= 250Kt) and frequency levels over current frequency levels (tonn <=250Kt).

Bibliographic list:
  1. Holmberg R and Persson P (1970) “Design of Tunnel Perimeter Blast Hole Patterns to prevent Rock Damage” Proc. IMM Tunelling 1979 Conference, U, K.
  2. Devine J., Richard H., Beek H., Meyer A., Duvall W. (1966). “Effect of charge weight on vibration levels from quarry blasting”. Report of investigation 6774.
  3. L. Hall & A. Bodare (2000) “Analyses of the cross-hole method for determining shear wave velocities and damping ratios”. Soil Dynamics and earthquake Engineering 20 (2000) 167 — 175.

Section 5. Information
National Organization of Explosives Engineers (NOIV) invites you to take part in the work of the XXII Scientific and Practical Conference on Mining and Explosives206-207

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