"Explosion technology"— scientific and technical journal

Journal was founded in 1922 by a group of engineers. In Russia and the CIS "Explosion technology" is the only one peer-reviewed specialized periodical in the field of blasting.

Issue 138/95 (2023)

Theory and practice of blasting work

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Section 1. Studies of rock destruction by explosion
UDC 622.235:552.574:539.3
Odintsev V.N., Leading Researcher, Doct. of Sc. Tech.,
Zakalinsky V.M., Leading Researcher, Doct. of Sc. Tech.,
Shipovsky I.E., Senior Researcher, Cand. of Sc. Tech.,
Mingazov R.Ya., specialist, Lead Engineer
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources named after academic N.N. Melnikov Russian Academy of Sciences)

Assessment of the influence of radial cracks formed during a camouflage explosion on the conditions of seam degassing

Keywords:reservoir degassing, explosive impact, fractured rocks, radial cracks, computer modeling, stress state

Degassing of gas-bearing seams is of great importance for improving the safety of mining operations and increasing the efficiency of gas recovery during the development of shale gas deposits. The work deals with the issues of degassing using the technology of explosive impact on the seam. Calculations of the wave and post-wave destruction of the seam during the explosion of the borehole charge are carried out. A numerical method based on a combination of the finite element method and the smoothed particle method was used to calculate the wave effect. This approach allowed for the conditions of cylindrical symmetry to take into account the detonation of explosives and the features of charges used in practice. Analytical methods of plasticity theory, crack theory and FEM for calculating the stress-strain state of rocks in the elastic zone were used to calculate the cracks formed. It is established that when detonating charges explode in the rock crushing zone (plasticity zone), the circumferential and radial stresses are stresses of strong compression and this zone must be impermeable. Thus, gaseous explosion products cannot participate in the development of radial cracks and these cracks cannot be channels for gas migration to the well. It is also shown that radial cracks start from the zone of fragmented rocks and can have a length of up to 20 radii of charge. Calculations also showed that only 6-8 extended radial cracks can develop steadily, located approximately at an equal distance from each other. It is concluded that in order to increase the efficiency of seam degassing using dynamic action, it is necessary to provide technological measures aimed at preventing the formation of a zone of fragmented rocks or increasing its permeability.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Pokrovskiy G.I. Vzryv (Explosion). Moscow. Nedra, 1980. 190 p.
  2. Tyupin V.N. Vzryvnye i geomekhanicheskie protsessy v treshchinovatykh napryazhennykh gornykh massivakh (Explosive and geomechanical processes in fractured stressed mountain massifs). Belgorod: ID «Belgorod» NIU «BelGU», 2017. 192 p.
  3. Viktorov S.D., Galchenko Yu.P., Zakalinskiy V.M., Rubtsov S.K. Razrushenie gornykh porod sblizhennymi zaryadami (Destruction of rocks by close charges). Moscow.: Nauchtekhlitizdat 2006. 276 p.
  4. Ghose A.K., Joshi A. Blasting in Mining – New Trends. CRC Press, 2012. DOI: 10.1201/b13739.
  5. Yi Li, Jie Cao, Xianfeng Chen Chuyuan Huang, Qi Zhao. Numerical Investigation on Crack Formation and Penetration Mechanism between Adjacent Blastholes. Shock and Vibration Volume 2020, Article ID 8816059, 10 pages. DOI:10.1155/2020/8816059.
  6. Sher E.N., Aleksandrova N.I. Dinamika razvitiya zon razrusheniya pri vzryve sosredotochennogo zaryada v khrupkoy srede (Dynamics of the development of destruction zones during the explosion of a concentrated charge in a brittle medium). Journal of Mining Science. 2000. № 5.pp. 54-68.
  7. Meyers M. Dynamic failure: mechanical and microstructural aspects (Dynamic failure: mechanical and microstructural aspects). Journal de Physique IV Colloque. 1994. 04(C8). pp. 597-621.
  8. Brian N. C., Gao H, Gross D., Rittel D. Review – Modern topics and challenges in dynamic fracture. Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids. 2005. Vol. 53. pp. 565-596.
  9. Kochanov A.N., Odintsev V.N. Volnovoe predrazrushenie monolitnykh gornykh porod pri vzryve (Wave pre–destruction of monolithic rocks during explosion). Journal of Mining Science. 2016. no 6. pp. 38–48.
  10. Thornton D., Kanchibotla S., Brunton I. Modelling the impact of rock-mass and blast design variation on blast fragmentation, Fragblast, vol. 6, no. 2, 2002. pp. 169–188. DOI: 10.1076/frag.
  11. Yi C., Sjöberg J., Johansson D., Petropoulos N. A numerical study of the impact of short delays on rock fragmentation. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 100, 2017, pp. 250-254.
  12. Kamyanskiy V.N. Modelirovanie vzryva skvazhinnykh zaryadov v srede ANSYS (Modeling of the explosion of borehole charges in the ANSYS environment). Problemy nedropolzovaniya. 2017. №1(12). pp. 119-126.
  13. Shipovskii I.E. Simulation for fracture by smooth particle hydrodynamics code (Simulation for fracture by smooth particle hydrodynamics code). Scientific Bulletin of National Mining University, 2015, Vol. 145, Issue 1. pp. 76–82.
  14. Rodionov V.N., Adushkin V.V., Romashev A.N. i dr. Mekhanicheskiy effekt podzemnogo vzryva (The mechanical effect of an underground explosion). Moscow. Nedra. 1971. 224 p.
  15. Kryukov G.M. Fizika i momenty raznykh vidov razrusheniya gornoy porody pri vzryve v ney udlinennogo zaryada PVV (Physics and moments of different types of rock destruction during the explosion of an elongated PVV charge in it). Moscow. Izd. Moskovskogo gos. gornogo universiteta. 2009. 48 p.
  16. Dugartsyrenov A.V. Dinamika napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya gornykh porod pri kamufletnom vzryve sosredotochennogo zaryada (Dynamics of the stress-strain state of rocks during a concentrated charge camouflage explosion). GIAB. 2007. no 4. pp. 166-179.
  17. Sher E.N., Chernikov A.G. Raschet parametrov radialnoy sistemy treshchin, obrazuyushcheysya pri vzryve udlinennogo zaryada v khrupkikh gornykh porodakh (Calculation of the parameters of the radial system of cracks formed during the explosion of an elongated charge in brittle rocks // Fundamental and applied issues of mining sciences). Fundamentalnye i prikladnye voprosy gornykh nauk. 2015. Volume 2. no 2. pp. 299-303.
  18. Odintsev V.N., Zakalinskiy V.M., Lapikov I.N., Mingazov R.Ya. Modelirovanie napravlennosti vzryvnogo vzaimodeystviya sblizhennykh zaryadov (Modeling of the direction of explosive interaction of close charges). Vzryvnoe delo. 2022. no 136/93. pp. 5-24.
  19. Malinin N.N. Prikladnaya teoriya plastichnosti i polzuchesti (Applied theory of plasticity and creep). Moscow. Mashinostroenie. 1975. 400 p.
  20. Cherepanov G.P. Mekhanika khrupkogo razrusheniya (Mechanics of brittle fracture). Moscow. Nauka. 1974. 640 p.
  21. Wang J., Elsworth D., Cao Y., Liu Sh. Reach and geometry of gas-driven fractures. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2020. Vol.129. N104287. 12p. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2020.104287.
  22. Merkulov A.A., Baldin A.V., Duvanov A.M. Gazodinamicheskie metody vskrytiya plastov (Gas-dynamic methods of reservoir opening). Neftyanoe khozyaystvo. 2006. no 9. pp. 115-117.
  23. Schmidt R.A, Boade R.R, Bass R.C. A new perspective on well shooting-behavior of deeply buried explosions and deflagrations. J Petrol Technol. 1981;33:1305–1311. DOI: 10.2118/8346-PA.
  24. Odintsev V.N., Shipovskiy I.E. Modelirovanie osobennostey «myagkogo» vzryvnogo vozdeystviya na ugolnyy plast (Modeling of features of "soft" explosive impact on a coal seam). Vzryvnoe delo. 2021. no 130/87. pp. 15-31.]
UDC 622.235.5
Zharikov I.F. Senior researcher, doctor of technical sciences
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources named after academic N.N. Melnikov Russian Academy of Sciences)

Structural features of rock deformation under explosive destruction

Keywords:explosive, rock structure, structural defects, stress wave, plastic flow, explosive cavity, damping laws, dissipative processes, compression wave front

The main laws governing the attenuation of stress waves during an explosion in elastoplastic solid media are determined. The separation of the principal stresses is carried out and the boundaries of the change in the sign of the azimuthal stresses, which determine the initial region of the formation of radial cracks, are shown. Differences in the decay laws of the maximum mass velocity and displacements in the near and far zones of the explosion action in the studied solid media are experimentally established.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Rodionov V.N., Sizov I.A. On inelastic stresses in a solid body with heterogeneity // Collection "Explosive business", M. "Nedra"1998, No 90/47, p. 5-17.
  2. Zharikov I.F. Efficiency of management of the processes of drilling and blasting preparation of the mountain massif to the excavation // Sb. "Explosive Case", 2012, No 108/65, pp. 82-92.
  3. Kompaneets A.S. Shock waves in the plastic compacting environment // DAN, v. 109,1986, No 1, p. 23-28.
  4. Rodionov V.N., Sizov I.A., Tsvetkov V.M. Osnovy geomekhanika // M, Nedra, 1996, p. 299.
  5. Sadovsky M.A., Adushkin V.V., Spivak A.A. On the size of the zones of irreversible deformation during an explosion in a block medium // Mechanical action of the explosion, M. IDG RAS, 1994, pp. 54-61.
  6. Zharikov I.F. Problems of preparing an exploded rock mass on deep horizons // Collection "Explosive business", M. 2019, No 121/75, pp. 109-121.

Section 2. State and improvement of explosives, devices and blasting agents
UDC 622.235
Adushkin V.V., Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Head, Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the problem of "National economic use of explosion"
(Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of the Russian Academy of Sciences)
Belin V.A., Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, President
(National Organization of Explosive Engineers)
Gorinov S.A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, leading researcher
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources named after academic N.N. Melnikov Russian Academy of Sciences)

About increase of efficiency and safety of explosive works

Keywords:explosives, emulsion explosives, explosive works, jointed massifs, means of initiation, seismic effect, digital technologies, safety of mining, training of explosive business

The analysis of references and practical data has shown that efficiency of explosive works is defined mainly by properties and parameters of used explosives. Now in Russia there is an active process of introduction of EVV that is caused by high consumer characteristics of this look of Centuries. The high-concentrated emulsions are characterized by considerable superficial energy of the section of phases therefore can be received and kept only with application of PEAHENS. Quality of an oxidizer, fuel and emulsifier has also great impact on stability of an emulsion. Now within import substitution transition only on domestic components of explosive structures that can affect their physical and chemical properties is carried out. Merits of EVV have formed the basis of their wide circulation at production of firm minerals around the world. Now already more than a half of all volume consumed by the industry of our country of VV is made by EVV. In Russia the greatest distribution among means of initiation was gained by not electric systems consisting of a shock and wave tube, connected to a cap detonator. Their application taking into account need of import substitution, faces a number of problems which successfully are solved. The problem of increase of efficiency of explosive works in the industry can't be solved without preparation of the qualified scientific and engineering shots.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Cook M. A. Nauka about industrial explosive substances / M A. Cook. – M.: Subsoil. – 1980. – 453 pages.
  2. Xuguang V. Emulsion explosives. Monograph lane prof. Van Syuyguan of the edition Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, 1994г./Van Syuyguan. - Krasnoyarsk: Metallurgical Industry Press, 2012. - 380 pages.
  3. Kolganov E.V. Emulsion industrial explosives the 1st book (Structures and properties) / E.V. Kolganov, V.A. Sosnin - Dzerzhinsk the Nizhny Novgorod Region, State Research and Development Institute publishing house "Crystal", 2009. 592 pages.
  4. Sosnin V.A. Sostoyaniye and prospects of development of industrial explosives in Russia and abroad / VA. Sosnin, S.E. Mezheritsky, Yu.G. Pechenev // Mining industry, 2017. - No. 5. - Page 60-64.
  5. Ioffe V. B. Scientific bases of safe production and use of emulsion explosives like "Sibiritov" at the mountain enterprises: yew. … докт. техн. sciences: 05.26.03, 25.00.20/Ioffe Valery Borisovich. – M, 2002. – 349 pages.
  6. Lee J. Detonation and shock initiation properties of emulsion explosive/J. Lee J. and etc. // Proc. 9th Intern. Detonation Symp., Portland, Origon, 1989. - pp.263-271.
  7. Lee J. Detonation behavior of emulsion explosives/J. Lee J., P.A. Persson//Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. - 1990. - V.15. - No. 5. - pp.208-216.
  8. Deribas A.A. Mechanism of detonation of emulsion explosives with hollow microballons/A.A. Deribasand etc // XII International Conference on the Methods of Aerophysical Research: 28 June – 3 July, 2004, Novosibirsk, Russia. - Novosibirsk, 2004. - Part I. - pp.75-80.
  9. Zhuchenko E.I. About a detonation of borehole charges of emulsion explosives, the sensibilizirovannykh gas inclusions / E.I. Zhuchenko, V. B. Ioffe, B. N. Kukib//Explosive business. - Release No. 110/67. - M.: JSC MVK po vzryvnomu delu. - 2013. - Page 88-99.
  10. Reshetnyak A.Yu. Detonation of an emulsion on the basis of ammonium nitrate with tsenosfer: автореф. yew. … Cand.Tech.Sci.: 01.02.05 / Reshetnyak Alexander Yuryevich. - Novosibirsk, 2007. - 20 pages
  11. Maslov I.Yu. Development of technology of an explosive otboyka of the flooded rocks by deep wells with use of emulsion explosives on the basis of expanded polystyrene: Avtoref. yew. … Cand.Tech.Sci.: 25.00.20/Maslov Ilya Yuryevich. - M - 2013. - 23 pages
  12. Rafeychik S. I. Pilot and numerical study of parameters of a detonation of emulsion explosives with microcylinders from glass: автореф. yew. … edging. the physical - a mat. sciences: 01.04.17 / Rafeychik Sergey Igoryevich. - Novosibirsk, 2014. - 19с.
  13. Medvedev A.E. Approximate and analytical solutions of problems of mechanics of reacting, multiphase environments: Дисс. … докт. the physical. - a mat. sciences: 01.02.05 / Medvedev Alexey Elizarovich. - Novosibirsk, 2015. – 208 pages
  14. Sosnin V.A. Features of the mechanism of a detonation of emulsion explosives/VA. Sosnin [etc.]//Messenger of the Kazan technological university. - 2016. - T. 19. - No. 19. - Page 28-33.
  15. Gorinov S. A. Initiation and detonation emulsion Explosives/Gorinov S. A. – Ioshkar Ola: JSC IPF String. – 2020. – 214 pages.
  16. Belin V.A. Key aspects of development of the standard of training of mining engineers in "Explosive business" / V.A. Belin, M. G. Gorbonos//the Mountain information and analytical bulletin (the scientific and technical magazine). – 2008. No. 12. – Page 40 – 49.
UDC 622.235:539.3
Efremovtsev N.N., Ph.D., Senior researcher,
Golberg G.Yu., Dr.Sc., Leading researcher
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources named after academic N.N. Melnikov Russian Academy of Sciences)

Formation of pores in ammonium nitratre granules in the process of impregnation with fuel emulsions

Keywords:ammonium nitrate granule, fuel mixture emulsion, impregnation, granule pore diameter, Darcy equation, capillary flow, size distribution of emulsion globules

The paper considers the process of impregnation of ammonium nitrate granules with fuel mixture emulsions containing apolar hydrocarbons and an aqueous solution of surfactants. It is noted that this process is the flow of the liquid phase through the capillaries, the diameter and length of which increase during the impregnation as a result of the dissolution of ammonium nitrate with water, which is part of the emulsion. Initial data were determined and assumptions were formulated to establish analytical dependencies that describe the kinetics of the process of impregnation of ammonium nitrate granules with fuel mixture emulsions, and Darcy's equation was taken as the basis. Experimental studies of pores formed in ammonium nitrate granules after impregnation with an emulsion were performed by optical microscopy. The research results showed that the values of the minimum, maximum and average diameters of the formed pores were 12.57 µm, 252.8 µm and 59.5 µm, respectively. The properties of the fuel emulsion were studied using the methods of optical microscopy and acoustic analysis. It was found that the studied emulsion is a fairly stable polydisperse system. The dispersed phase is a spherical globules consisting of apolar hydrocarbons with surfactant molecules adsorbed on the interface. On the differential distribution curve of globules by size, three relatively narrow regions were noted with maxima corresponding to the diameters: 350 nm, 2.5 µm, and 6-8 µm. Thus, the average pore diameter in ammonium nitrate granules is an order of magnitude or more greater than the diameter of the largest globules of the emulsion of the fuel mixture and solid energy additives contained in it. This, in turn, makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the unhindered flow of the named objects of the dispersed phase in the pores.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Zakharov V.N., Efremovtsev N.N., Fedotenko V.S. Research into man-made impact of rock blasting in surface mining of mineral deposits // Gornaja Promyshlennost (Mining Industry). 2022. № 6. P. 61–68.
  2. Trubetskoy K.N., Kaplunov D.R., Ryl'Nikova M.V. Problems and prospects in the resource-saving and resource-reproducing geotechnology development for comprehensive mineral wealth development // Journal of Mining Science. 2012. V. 48. № 4. P. 688–693.
  3. Aynbinder I.I., Garikov I.F., Shenderov A.I. Energy efficiency of a combined system of open-pit development in developing coal deposits // Mining informational and analytical bulletin (Scientific and technical journal). 2013. № 6. P. 75–82.
  4. Efremovtsev N., Kvitko S. Methodological Aspects of Properties and Blast Energy Kinetics Control of industrial of Explosives. Proseedings of the 8th International Conference on Physical problems of Rock Destruction. 2014. Published by Metallurgical Industry Press, China.
  5. Efremovtsev N.N. Novye tekhnologii porizacii ammiachnoj selitry i sostavy promyshlennyh vzryvchatyh veshchestv // Gornaja Promyshlennost (Mining Industry). 2015. № 2. S. 118.
  6. Efremovtsev N.N. New industrial explosives and fabrication technologies based on pore-and-channel forming emulsions for mining industry // Mining informational and analytical bulletin (Scientific and technical journal). 2018. № S1. S. 178–191.
  7. Efremovtsev N.N., Levachev S.M., Harlov A.E. Issledovanie uderzhivayushchej sposobnosti granulirovannoj ammiachnoj selitry // Vzryvnoe delo. 2018. № 121-78. S. 76–90.
  8. Viktorov S.D., Efremovtsev N.N., Zhdanov Yu.V., Zakalinsky V.M., Levachev S.M. Metodologiya razrabotki i rezul'taty ispytanij promyshlennyh vzryvchatyh veshchestv, soderzhashchih pryamye emul'sii // Vzryvnoe delo. 2019. № 123-80. S. 62–76.
  9. Viktorov S.D., Efremovtsev N.N., Zakalinsky V.M., Lapikov I.N. Metodologiya razrabotki i primeneniya innovacionnyh energoemkih materialov dlya effektivnogo i ekologicheski bezopasnogo razrusheniya gornyh porod. Materialy 6-j mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-tekhnicheskoj konferencii «Reshenie ekologicheskih i tekhnologicheskih problem gornogo proizvodstva na territorii Rossii, blizhnego i dal'nego zarubezh'ya. 2019. AO «VNIIPIpromtekhnologii». S. 259–263.
  10. Rehbinder P.A. Surface Phenomena in Disperse Systems. Physicochemical Mechanics. – Moscow, Nauka, 1978.
  11. Masalova I., Malkin A.Ya. Peculiarities of rheological properties and flow of highly concentrated emulsions: the role of concentration and droplet size // Colloid Journal. 2007. V. 69. P. 185–197.
  12. Malkin A.Ya., Masalova I. Shear and normal stresses in flow of highly concentrated emulsions // J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 2007. V. 147. P. 65–68.
  13. Masalova I., Malkin A.Ya., Foudazi R. Yield stress as measured in steady shearing and in oscillations // Appl. Rheol. 2008. V. 18. № 447090.
  14. Masalova I., Malkin A.Ya. Flow of Super-Concentrated Emulsions // Journal of Rheology. 2006. V. 50, № 435. P. 412–418.
  15. Efremovtsev N.N., Golberg G.Yu., Zhavoronko S.N. Reologicheskie svojstva pryamyh emul'sij ispol'zuemyh dlya proizvodstva Granulita «EF-P». Sbornik dokladov XV Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferenciya po vzryvnomu delu. 2015. S. 46–49.
  16. Efremovtsev N.N., Golberg G.Yu. Rezul'taty issledovaniya vliyaniya razlichnyh faktorov na reologicheskie svojstva pryamyh emul'sij ispol'zuemyh dlya proizvodstva granulitov // Vzryvnoe delo. 2015. № 114-71. S. 178–185.
  17. Efremovtsev N.N., Levachev S.M., Harlov A.E., Golberg G.Yu. Upravlenie reologicheskimi svojstvami emul'sionnyh energoemkih materialov dlya sozdaniya robotizirovannyh tekhnologij formirovaniya detonacionnyh system. V sbornike 17 Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferenciya po gornomu i vzryvnomu delu 09.09.18-16.09.2018. Sochi, 2018. S. 36–37.
  18. Efremovtsev N.N., Harlov A.E., Levachev S.M. Smart Impact of Nano-Micro Structures of Energy-Saturated Materials on Their Characteristics Optimization // Proceedings of the international conference on physical mesomechanics. materials with multilevel hierarchical structure and intelligent manufacturing technology, Tomsk, 05-09 October 2020. – Tomsk: AIP Publishing, 2020.
UDC 622.235
Koretsky A.S. – Senior Lecturer
(N.M. Fedorovsky Polar State University)
Gorinov S.A. – Doctor of Technical Sciences, leading researcher
(Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources named after academic N.N. Melnikov Russian Academy of Sciences)
Maslov I.Yu. – Candidate of Technical Sciences, Chief Engineer
("Global Mining Explosive Russia" LLC)

The dimensions of gas micropores sensitizing the emulsion explosive by the depth of the descending borehole charge

Keywords:emulsion explosive, sensitization, gas bubble, ascent rate, explosive decomposition ability

When sensitizing emulsion explosives (EE) with gas microbubbles (GMB), the size of the latter has a significant effect on the detonation and susceptibility of EE to the initiating pulse. Too small GMBs do not form «hot spots» that serve as ignition centers when EE is initiated. In descending blast wells, under the influence of excessive hydrostatic pressure from the charge column, the size of the GMB decreases and the overall porosity of the EE decreases due to compression of the GMB. These circumstances serve as a source of danger of failures during the explosion of borehole charges, therefore, the identification of patterns of changes in the size of GMB with depth is of great practical importance. The paper presents a theoretical estimate of the size of GMB sensitizing EE by the depth of the descending borehole charge. It is shown that the dependences of the change in the relative porosity of the EE and the relative radius of the GMB with depth are determined mainly by the depth of the charge and weakly depend on the matrix density of the emulsion and the initial density of the EE. However, the overall porosity of the EVV decreases with depth the faster the smaller the initial porosity of the EE. The obtained patterns are of interest to specialists involved in both the use of EE and the improvement of this type of industrial explosives.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Xiguang V. Emulsion explosives. Trans. monographs of Prof. Wang Xiguang editions of Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, 1994 / Wang Xiguang. - Krasnoyarsk: Metallurgical Industry Press, 2012. - 380 p.
  2. Kolganov E.V. Emulsion industrial explosives. 1st book (Compositions and properties) / E.V. Kolganov, V.A. Sosnin - Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod region, publishing house of the State Research Institute "Crystal", 2009. 592 p.
  3. Sosnin A.V. The influence of the sizes and parameters of microspheres on the detonation rate in emulsion explosives / A.V. Sosnin // Explosive business. Issue No. 105/62. - Moscow: CJSCMVK on explosive business”, 2011. - pp.199-209.
  4. Medvedev A.E. Approximate analytical solutions of problems of mechanics of reacting, multiphase media: Thesis. ... Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences: 01.02.05 / Alexey Yelizarovich Medvedev.- Novosibirsk, 2015. – 208 p.
  5. Sosnin V.A. Features of the mechanism of detonation of emulsion explosives / V.A. Sosnin, Mezheritsky S.E., Pechenev Yu.G. et al. // Bulletin of the Kazan Technological University. - 2016. - Vol. 19. - No. 19. - pp. 28-33.
  6. Gorinov S.A. Initiation and detonation of emulsion explosives/ S.A. Gorinov. – Yoshkar-Ola: String. - 2020. – 214 p.
  7. Yunoshev A.S. Influence of artificial pores on the detonation parameters of an emulsion explosive /A.S. Yunoshev, V.V. Sil’vestrov, AV. Plastinin , S.I. Rafeichik // Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves. – 2017. – volume 53. - p. 205–210.
  8. Al-Sabagh A.M. Preparation and investigation of emulsion explosive matrix based on gas oil for mining process/ A.M. Al-Sabagh, M.A. Hussien, M.R. Mishrif, A.E. El-Tabey // Journal of Molecular Liquids. – 2017. – N 4. – p. 238-243. -DOI:10.1016/j.molliq.2017.04.085
  9. Balakrishnan V. Field investigashion in the dttonation behavior of emulsion expkosive columb induced with air gaps/ V. Balakrishnan, M. Pradhan, P. Y. Dhekne //Mining Science. – 2019. – Vol. 26. – Pp. 55–68. - DOI:10.37190/msc192605.
  10. Fang H. Effects of content and particle size of cenospheres on the detonation characteristics of emulsion explosive/ Hua Fang, Yang-Fan Cheng, Chen Tao et al. // Journal of energetic materials.– 2021.– Vol. 29.– P. 197-214.- DOI:10.1080/07370652.2020.1770896.
  11. Zhuchenko E.I. Application of EVV, sensitized by the method of gas generation, in deep wells / Zhuchenko E.I., Ioffe V.B., Kukib B.N. et al. // Occupational safety in industry. - 2002. - No. 11. - p.30-32.
  12. Fokin V.A. Distribution of the density of emulsion explosives along the height of the borehole charge column / V.A. Fokin // Izv. VUZov. Mining journal. - 2007. - No.3. - pp.89-94.
  13. Ilyakhin S.V. Density of emulsion explosives (EVV) with chemical gas generation containing dry phase and EVV sensitized with polystyrene, according to the height of the borehole charge/ S.V. Ilyakhin, I.Y. Maslov // Mining information and Analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). Separate (special) issue. - 2012. - № 12. - 12 S.
  14. Gorinov S.A. Density of an emulsion explosive sensitized by gas pores along the length of a rising borehole charge / S.A. Gorinov, I.Y. Maslov // Mining information and analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). Selected articles (special issue) - 2013. - № 11. - 12 S.
  15. Sosnin V.A. The state and prospects of development of industrial explosives in Russia and abroad / V.A. Sosnin, S.E. Mezheritsky // Bulletin of Kazan Technological University. - 2016. – Vol. 19. - No. 19. – pp. 84-89.

Section 3. Technology of blasting in the mining of solid minerals
UDC 622.235.6
Zairov Sh.Sh., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Mining Department
(Navoi State University of Mining and Technology)
Nutfulloev G.S., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Educational and Methodological Department,
Kobilov Sh.B., Assistant of the Mining Department

Investigation of the effect of explosive high explosive and operability on the effectiveness of contour blasting

Keywords:contour blasting, contour charges, contour holes, low brisance, operability, rock destruction, explosive action of explosives, elongated charges, industrial explosives

The article considers the effects of explosive explosive and operability on the effectiveness of contour blasting. One of the significant factors influencing the results of contour blasting is the correct choice of the type of explosives for contour charges. The practice of using contour blasting technology shows that explosives for charges placed in contour holes should have a low brisance with sufficient power (operability), providing the energy of a shock wave sufficient to destroy rocks, or the explosive effect of explosives at the time of explosion should be artificially lowered. In the first period of the study, industrial explosives in standard diameter cartridges were tested in the charges of contour holes in order to obtain the dependence of the size of the busting and the disturbance of the array on the grade of explosives. The 2 most common types of patronized explosives were tested: Ammonite No. 6ZHV and Aumannite in normal elongated charges without inert gaskets, which excluded the influence of the charge design on the results of the explosion.

Bibliographic list:
  1. NIS Institute "Orgenergostroy". Scientific and technical report on the topic: "Participation in improving the passports of drilling and blasting operations during the construction of underground structures of the Toktegul HPP". – Contract No. 1197, 2003. – 137 p.
  2. Stepanov P.D. Control of the profile of large cross-section workings in hydraulic engineering construction // Sb. "Methods of measuring the contours of mine workings during blasting". Inf. issue. IGD named after A.A. Skochinsky, 1995. – 162 p.
  3. Chukan B.K. et al. Ways to reduce overkill when sinking mine workings. – Rostov-on-Don, 2002. – 27 p.
  4. Hanukaev A.N. On the physical essence of the process of destruction of rocks by explosion // Sb. "Questions of the theory of explosion action". – M.: ed. Russian Academy of Sciences, 2006. – 201 p.
  5. Uniform safety rules for conducting blasting operations. – M.: Nedra, 1994. – 238 p.
  6. Safety regulations for the construction of hydraulic tunnels. – M., Orgenergostroy, 1996. – 107 p.
  7. Rakhimov V.R., Kazakov A.N., Khasanov A.R. Investigation of the stress-strain state of rocks // Vestnik TASHSTU. ‒ Tashkent, 2011. ‒ No.1-2. – pp. 167-171.
UDC 622.235.6
Zairov Sh.Sh., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Mining Department
(Navoi State University of Mining and Technology)
Nutfulloev G.S., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Educational and Methodological Department",
Kobilov Sh.B., Assistant of the Mining Department

The effect of the charge design on the efficiency of contour blasting

Keywords:technology of contour blasting, contour charges, industrial explosives, busting, utilization factor of the «KISH» hole, «channel effect»

The article considers charge designs for the effectiveness of contour blasting, the technology of contour blasting as a prerequisite involves the use of explosives with low initial gas pressure during explosion for contour charges with sufficient operability necessary for the destruction of rocks. However, in most industrial explosives, an increase in power (operability) is accompanied by an increase in the initial pressure during an explosion, as a result of which none of them can be recommended for use in cartridges of a standard diameter close to the diameter of the hole in complex elongated charges. The explosion of such charges will independently lead to the crushing of the nearest sections of rock on the production circuit.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Klyuchnikov A.V. Investigation of the parameters of contour blasting during the sinking of mine workings // Inf. vol. IGD named after A.A. Skochinsky. – Moscow, 1995. – Issue 149. – pp. 43-48.
  2. Masaev Yu.A. Calculation of BVR parameters in the construction of vertical trunks. – Kemerovo: KuzSTU, 2003. – 35 p.
  3. Safety rules for the construction of subways and tunnels. – M.: Orgtranstroy, 1991. – 681 p.
  4. NIS Institute "Orgenergostroy". Scientific and technical report on the topic: "Research work on the underground structures of the Nurek HPP". Drilling and blasting operations. – Contract No. 562, 2002. -137 p.
  5. NIS Institute "Orgenergostroy". Scientific and technical report on the topic: "Participation in improving the passports of drilling and blasting operations during the construction of underground structures of the Toktegul HPP". – Contract No. 1197, 2003. – 137 p.
  6. Stepanov P.D. Control of the profile of large cross-section workings in hydraulic engineering construction // Sb. "Methods of measuring the contours of mine workings during blasting". Inf. issue. IGD named after A.A. Skochinsky, 1995. – 162 p.

Section 4. Use of combustion processes and explosion actions in industry
UDC 662.221.11: 622.276
Pavlova Ya.O., student, Department of TTXV,
Mokeev A.A., associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences,
Petrov A.C., assistant,
Marsov A.A., associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences,
Salnikov A.S., associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences,
Garifullin R.Sh., associate Professor, Candidate of technical Sciences
(Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education «Kazan national research technological University» – FGBOU VO «KNITU»)

Experimental evaluation of acid-generating solid propellant charges’s efficiency in complex with a charge of gun perforator

Keywords:acid-generating solid propellant charges, perforation, perforator’s charge, ammonium perchlorate, ammonium nitrate, hexachloroethane, polytetrafluoroethylene, combined target

Experimental studies have been carried out to assess the penetration capacity of rows of borehole perforators operating in combination with acid-generating solid fuel charges. The penetration capability was assessed using a combined target consisting of a steel disc simulating a casing string and a concrete block simulating the rock of an oil reservoir. The depth and diameter of the channel formed in the concrete block, the shape and diameter of the hole formed in the steel disk were selected as the parameters for evaluating the effectiveness of the action. It is established that the configuration of the solid fuel charge significantly affects the efficiency indicators. The absence of a conical recess contributes to a decrease in the penetration capacity, which is associated with a violation of the formation of a cumulative jet in contact with the charge at an early stage of formation. In the presence of a conical recess, there is an increase in the penetration capacity up to 25% in depth and up to 100% in diameter of the channel in the concrete block.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Basarygin Yu.M., Bulatov A.I., Proselkov Yu.M.. Completion of wells – M.: OOO Nedra-Businesscenter, 2000. – 670 p.
  2. Patent RF No. 2250359 C2, 20.04.2005.
  3. Boyko V.S. Development and operation of oil fields. – M.: Nedra, 1990. – 427p.
  4. Patent RF No. 2436827 C2, 12/20/2011.
  5. Chipiga S.V., Sadykov I.F., Marsov A.A. Calculation-theoretical substantiation of the possibility of creating a universal fuel composition of a thermal source for processing oil wells = Bulletin of the Kazan Technological University. 2012. v.15. No. 7. pp. 174-176.
  6. Chipiga S.V., Sadykov I.F., Marsov A.A. et al. Development of the fuel composition of a gas generator for treating oil wells = Bulletin of the Kazan Technological University. 2012. v.15. No. 7. pp. 168-170.
  7. Mokeev A.A., Soldatova A.S., Badretdinova L.Kh. et al. Investigation of the physical stability of energy-saturated compositions of a chemically active element intended for the treatment of oil wells. Vzryvnoe delo = Explosive business. 2012. No. 107-64. pp. 49-59.
  8. Petrov A.S., Mokeev A.A., Garifullin R.Sh. Combustible acid-generating compositions for enhanced oil recovery. Vzryvnoe delo = Explosive business. 2018. No. 121-78. pp. 124-134.
  9. Salnikov A.S., Gilmanov R.Z., Marsov A.A. et al. Non-detonating energy-saturated materials based on ammonium nitrate, used in oil production intensification technologies = Bulletin of the Technological University. - 2016. - V.19. - No. 19. - with. 66-70.
  10. Chipiga S.V., Sadykov I.F., Marsov A.A. et al. Device and technology for complex perforation and thermal gas-acid treatment of the bottomhole zone of a well = Bulletin of the Kazan Technological University. 2012. T 15. No. 24. S. 126.
  11. Mokeev A.A., Salnikov A.S., Badretdinova L.Kh. et al. Research of combined charges of energy-saturated materials for processing oil wells = Bulletin of the Kazan Technological University. 2014. V. 17. No. 15. pp. 268-269.
  12. Patent RF No. 2469180 C2, 10.12.2012.
  13. Patent RF No. 2633883 C1, 10/19/2017.

Section 5. Ecology and safety during blasting operations
UDC 622.23
Tyupin V.N., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
(Belgorod State National Research University)

Dynamics of propagation of deformation waves in fractured arrays during explosive charges explosion

Keywords:blasting operations, three-sided massifs, deformation waves, propagation velocity and time, collapse width, numerical calculations, reliability, efficiency and safety of mining production

The analysis of literature sources indicates that when exploding in a fractured rock mass, in addition to stress waves and seismic-explosive waves, deformation waves appear, representing the movement of the array's separations from explosive charges. The purpose of the article is to numerically determine the velocity of propagation of deformation waves during the explosion of groups of explosive charges in the structural part of fractured arrays and the rate of displacement of the slope of the ledge. The mechanism of formation of deformation waves and formulas for calculating the velocity and time of their propagation when explosive charges explode in fractured arrays are given. Numerical calculations of the velocity of deformation waves are consistent with the velocity of rock expansion from the slope of ledges determined by various authors using high-speed filming. The mathematical analysis of the formulas for calculating the velocity of deformation waves, the width of the collapse of the rock mass and the comparison of numerical calculations with actual ones indicates the reliability of the formulas. Taking into account the effect of propagation of deformation waves in fractured rocks allows it to be used to improve the efficiency and safety of individual technological processes of open and underground mining.
This research was funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation within the framework of State Assignment No. FZWG-2023-0011.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Chernihiv A.A. Application of directional explosion in mining and construction. – M.: Nedra, 1976. 318 p.
  2. Vovk A.A., Smirnov A.G., Blagodarenko Yu.A. On two components of the voltage field near the explosive charge // FTPRPI. 1976. No. 6. pp. 28-31.
  3. Kutuzov B.N., Tyupin V.N. Determination of the interval of short-delayed detonation of charges in a fractured array // Izv. VUZov. Mining magazine. 1979. No. 1. pp. 28-35.
  4. Tyupin V.N. Explosive and geomechanical processes in fractured stressed mountain massifs. – Belgorod: Publishing house "Belgorod" NRU "BelGU", 2017. – 192 p.
  5. Rakishev B.R. Forecasting of technological parameters of blasted rocks at quarries. – Alma-Ata: Science. 1983. 240 p.
  6. Adushkin V.V., Kaazik P.B., Rakishev B.R. Investigation of the dynamics of the movement of the array when blasting ledges with borehole charges. – In the book. Explosive business. - M. 1976. No. 76/33. pp. 98-100.
  7. Lemesh V.A., Pozdnyakov B.V. Investigation of kinematic patterns of movement of rocks by explosion in the zone of destruction. // FTPRPI. 1972. No. 4. pp. 36-40.
  8. Rakishev B.R. On modeling the formation of a bulk of blasted rock. – In the book. Explosive business. - M. 1976. No. 77/34. pp. 252-260.
  9. Drukovanny M.F. Methods of explosion control at quarries. – M.: Nedra, 1973. 414 p.
  10. Tkachuk K.M., Tkachev S.I. Investigation of the action of the explosion of a column charge using high–speed filming - Ed. universities. Mining Journal. 1966. No. 4. pp. 73-76.
  11. Kutuzov B.N. Resource conservation during mass explosions at quarries // GIAB. 1995. Issue 6. pp. 37-43.
  12. Tyupin V.N. Geomechani calbehavi or of joined rock mass in the large-scale blast impact zone // Eurasian Mining. 2020. No.2. Pp.11-14. DOI: 10.17580/em.2020.02.03.
  13. Ilyin A.I., Galperin A.M., Streltsov V.I. Management of long-term stability of slopes at quarries. – M.: Nedra, 1985. 248 p.
  14. Belin V.A. Studies of the quality of blasting operations using emulsion explosives. // In the collection: Explosive business—2020. — No. 127/84. — Moscow: IPCON RAS. pp. 37-64
  15. Baum F.A., Orlenko L.P., Stanyukovich K.P., Chelyshev V.P., Shekhter B. I. Physics of explosion. – M.: Nauka. 1975. 704 p.
  16. Shevkun E. B., Leshchinsky A. V., Lysak Yu. A., Plotnikov A. Yu. Features of explosive loosening at increased deceleration intervals // Mining information and analytical bulletin. 2017. No. 4. pp. 272-282.
  17. Rakhmanov R.A., Loeb D., Kosukhin N.I. Estimation of displacements of ore contours after an explosion using a BMM system // Notes of the Mining Institute. 2020. Vol.245. pp.547-553. DOI:10.31897/PMI.2020.5.6.
  18. Tyupin V.N. Intensification of heap leaching of ore using explosion energy // Mining Journal. 2019. No.8. pp. 61-64. DOI:10.17580/gzh.2019.08.11.
  19. Yang L.-Y., Ding C.-X. Fracture mechanism due to blast-imposed loading under high static stress conditions // International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2018. Vol. 107. P. 150-158.
  20. Belin V.A., Kholodilov A.N., Gospodarikov A.P. Methodological foundations of forecasting the seismic action of mass explosions // Mining Journal. 2017. No.2. pp. 66-68.
  21. Zharikov S.N., Kutuev V.A. Analysis of the seismic effect in various rocks and ground conditions // Mining information and analytical bulletin. – 2020. – No. 12. – pp. 44-53. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2020-12-0-44-53.
  22. Tyupin V.N. Parameters of seismic action of mass explosions in isotropic and complex-structured rock massifs of quarries //Mining information and Analytical bulletin (scientific and technical journal). 2021. No. 12. pp. 47-51. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2021-12-0-47.
  23. Gui Y.L., Zhao Z.Y., Jayasinghe L.B., Zhou H.Y., Goh A.T.C., Tao M. Blast wave induced spatial variation of ground vibration considering field geological conditions // International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 2018, vol. 101, pp. 63—68. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2017.11.016.
  24. Li J. C., Li N. N., Chai S. B., Li H. B. Analytical study of ground motion caused by seismic wave propagation across faulted rock masses // International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics. 2017, vol. 42, no 1, pp. 95—109. DOI: 10.1002/nag.2716.
  25. Manchao H., Fuqiang R., Dongqiao L. Rockburst mechanism research and its control // International Journal of Mining Science and Technology. 2018. Vol. 28. No 5. Pp. 829-837.
  26. Kutuzov B.N., Tyupin V.N. Method of calculating the parameters of drilling and blasting operations at quarries in order to ensure a given quality of rock crushing// Mining Journal. 2017.No. 8. pp.66-69. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2018.01.09.
UDC 622.011.4
Ivlieva M.S., PhD student
(Tula State University)

Mathematical modeling of convective-diffusion transfer of limestone dust to the soils of the adjacent territory disturbed by open-pit mining

Keywords:explosion energy, mathematical modeling, open-pit mining, soil, limestone extraction, pollutant, migration of matter, statistical analysis, distribution of impurities in the soil

The article is devoted to the study of the influence of fine dust on the soils of the adjacent territory disturbed by open-pit mining. The explosive method of limestone extraction is accompanied by the release of limestone dust. The redistribution of solid particles is accompanied by the launch of various physico-chemical processes in the soil. To assess the spread of the pollutant along the depth of the soil profile, it shows different concentrations of the toxic substance. To simulate the transport of a contaminant component, a mathematical model of the processes of mass transfer of a pollutant in the solid phase using the convective diffusion equation using Fick's first law is considered. The mathematical model proposed by the author takes into account the transfer of matter, accompanied by chemical transformations and sorption. The solution is a second-order nonlinear Bernoulli differential equation. Nonlinear estimation in accordance with the solution of the logistic equation was performed in the Statistica 6.1 environment by the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Statistical data processing was performed on the soil profile at distances, respectively, 100, 200, 300 meters from the quarry. The surface of the calcium concentration response is graphically represented. In MathCad, graphs of solutions to the diffusion equation are constructed – logistic lines. Correlation and variance coefficients are described. This mathematical model is applicable when studying the distribution of calcium at depths and at different distances from the mine workings. In this case, analytical migration equations are used only to compile a numerical calculation algorithm. At the conclusion of the work, a high rate of decrease in the migration rate of calcium was noted with a decrease in the value of the effective diffusion coefficient. It can be noted that the basis of the improved model of the transfer of matter entering into a biochemical reaction with the soil substrate is the diffusion transfer equation. The obtained analytical dependence can be recommended for the assessment and prediction of various soil pollutants.

Bibliographic list:
  1. Sokolov E.M., Malikov A.A., Rybak L.L., Bogdanov S.M. Geotechnological principles of ecologically rational use of the subsoil of the Moscow coal basin // Proceedings of Tula State University. Earth sciences. 2014. No. 2. pp. 30 – 45.
  2. Gryazev M.V., Kachurin N.M., Stas G.V. On the issue of environmental protection from fine dust of mining enterprises // Sustainable development of mountain territories. 2018. Vol. 10. No. 4 (38). pp. 500 – 508.
  3. Antonenko N.A., Sheinkman L.E. Description of a mathematical and computer model of the transfer of a contaminant and the spread of impurities along a section in a layer of natural sorbent // Proceedings of Tula State University. Technical sciences. 2017. No.5. pp. 298 – 310.
  4. Prokhorov V.M. Migration of radioactive contamination in soils. Physico-chemical mechanisms and modeling / Edited by R.M. Aleksakhin. M.: Energoizdat, 1981. – 98 p
  5. Malinetsky G.G. Mathematical foundations of synergetics. Chaos, structures, computational experiment/M.:KomKniga, 2005. – 312 p.
  6. Kachurin N.M., Stas G.V., Vorobyev S.A., Mpeko Nsendo Ardi. Migration of radon in overworked rocks / Proceedings of Tula State University. Earth sciences. 2014. No. 4(2). pp. 18-23.
  7. Antonenko N.A., Dergunov D.V., Sheinkman L.E. Investigation of the influence of limestone fine dust formed during open-pit mining on soil properties// Proceedings of Tula State University. Earth sciences. 2017. No.2. pp. 3-17.
  8. Method for determining the diffusion coefficient of radionuclide in soil: pat. 2061238 Ros. Federation. / Sokolov E.M., Kachurin N.M., Kuznetsov A.A., Sviridova T.M.; application. 25.07.1994.; publ. 27.05.1996.
  9. Method for determining the rate constant of change of radionuclide content in soil: pat. 2103684 Ros. Federation. / Sokolov E.M., Kachurin N.M., Kuznetsov A.A., Sviridova T.M.; application 30.07.1996.; publ. 27.01.1998.
  10. Kachurin N.M., Khmelevsky M.V., Volkov D.A. Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of materials from production waste for strengthening rocks in limestone quarries dumps // Izvestiya Tula State University. Earth sciences. 2015. No. 4. pp. 18-23.
  11. Senchenko D.S., Dokutovich M.I. Geoecological aspects of blasting operations at limestone deposits // Mining information and analytical Bulletin. 2014. No. 8. 215 p.
  12. Yastrebova K.N., Moldovan D.V. A comprehensive solution to improve the atmosphere of the career space after mass explosions // Occupational safety in industry. 2016. No.1. 31 p.

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